Genealogy of the Callaghan Family in Sydney Australia

This web page traces my (Callaghan) genealogy along with the other families I have found so far.  Any comments, corrections or additions are welcome at brucecallaghan@gmail.com  I am happy to share my sources with anyone who is interested.

In tracing the origins of the Callaghan family, we have identified 35 different families to date, namely:

Family

Location
Beesley Darlington, Durham - UK
Blomfield Liverpool, NSW - Australia
Brandon Norwich, Norfolk - UK
Brewster Wymondham, Norfolk - UK
Brown Norwich, Norfolk - UK
Cassels Glasgow - Scotland
Callaghan Chelsea, London - UK
Carpenter Exeter, Devonshire - UK
Chesworth York, Yorkshire - UK
Colefax York, Yorkshire - UK
Constable Wymondham, Norfolk - UK
Dart Brixham, Devon - UK
Davis Devon - UK
Dean Middlesex - UK
Fletcher Glasgow, Lanarkshire - UK
Gay Devon - UK
Graham Durham - UK
Harford Devon - UK
Hollingsworth Ware, Hertfordshire - UK
Horswill Devon - UK
Jopling Durham - UK
King Norwich, Norfolk - UK
Langdon Devon - UK
Millman Modbury, Devon - UK
Mossman Glasgow, Lanarkshire - UK
Oldfield Wymondham, Norfolk - UK
Phillips Ashprington, Devon - UK
Pike Exeter, Devon - UK & Galway - Ireland
Pollyblank Aveton Gifford, Devon
Rogers St. Marys, NSW - Australia
Robinson Sunderland, Durham - UK
Rymes Chelsea, London - UK
Sanderson Durham - UK
Shea Tipperary - Ireland
Siggins Ware, Hertfordshire - UK
Stewart Glasgow - Scotland
Stidworthy Torquay, South Hams, Devon - UK
Stoddart Durham - UK
Wilson Darlington, Durham - UK

The 39 families from the UK and Ireland are shown on the map opposite. The Callaghan name originally came from county Cork in Ireland, but to date no connection with that area has been found.

The families which moved to Australia from the UK converged into three principal areas, all in NSW.  William Dean, Elizabeth Hollingsworth and the Pikes to western Sydney and the Constables and Fletchers to Moruya (Jean Blomfield's ancestors) while the Callaghans and Wilsons moved to Goulburn (Jack Callaghan's ancestors).

Table of Individual Ancestors in Order of Birth Date (Year/Month/Day)
Name Birth Date Birth Place Country Mother Father Married ( * = Unmarried) Died Burial Place
John Siggins 1 1550 (about) Berkshire?, England England     Alice ??? 1    
Alice ??? 1 1551 (about) Berkshire?, England England     John Siggins 1    
Richard Siggins 1581/2/10 Wantage, Berkshire England Alice ??? 1 John Siggins 1      
John Siggins 2 1601/4/16 Cheshunt, Hertfordshire England   Richard Siggins Susan ??? 1    
Susan ??? 1 1602 (about) Cheshunt?, Hertfordshire England     Richard Siggins    
Samuel Siggins 1 1640/3/7 Cheshunt, Hertfordshire England Susan ??? 1 John Siggins 2 Mary ??? 1    
Mary ??? 1 1641 (about) Cheshunt?, Hertfordshire England     John Siggins 2    
Samuel Siggins 2 1666/1/2 Thundridge, Hertfordshire England Mary ??? 1 Samuel Siggins 1 Elizabeth ??? 1    
Elizabeth ??? 1 1667 (about) Thundridge?, Hertfordshire England     Samuel Siggins 2    
Samuel Siggins 3 1695/12/23 Thundridge, Hertfordshire England Elizabeth ??? 1 Samuel Siggins 2 Mary ??? 2    
Mary ??? 2 1696 (about) Thundridge?, Hertfordshire England     Samuel Siggins 3    
John Brown 1720 (about) Norwich?, Norfolk England     Elizabeth Brandon    
Samuel King 1720 (about) Norwich?, Norfolk England     Ann ??? 2    
Joseph Siggins 1720/6/12 Thundridge, Hertfordshire England Mary ??? 2 Samuel Siggins 3 Ann ??? 1    
Ann ??? 1 1721 (about) Thundridge?, Hertfordshire England     Joseph Siggins    
Ann ??? 2 1721 (about) Norwich?, Norfolk England     Samuel King    
Elizabeth Brandon 1721 (about) Norwich?, Norfolk England     John Brown    
John Stidworthy 1 1734

Marlborough, Devon

England     Elizabeth Phillips    
Elizabeth Phillips 1734 (about) Ashprington, Devon England     John Stidworthy 1    
Sarah Siggins 1743/6/29 Ware, Hertfordshire England Ann ??? 1 Joseph Siggins William Hollingsworth    
Mary King 1745/5/10 Norwich, Norfolk England Ann ??? 2 Samuel King Samuel Brown    
Samuel Brown 1746/9/15 Norwich, Norfolk England Elizabeth Brandon John Brown Mary King    
John Pike 1752/8/18 Exeter, Devon England     Rebecca Carpenter    
William Hollingsworth 1754 (about) Ware?, Hertfordshire England     Sarah Siggins    
Rebecca Carpenter 1756/11/24 Exeter, Devon England     John Pike    
Richard Stidworthy 1758 Modbury, Devon England Elizabeth Phillips John Stidworthy 1 Elizabeth Millman    
Elizabeth Millman 1758 Modbury?, Devon England     Richard Stidworthy    
Sarah Stoddart 1765 (about)   England     John Wilson    
John Wilson 1765 (about)   England     Sarah Stoddart    
William Dean 1776/11/7 Middlesex England     Elizabeth Hollingsworth 7/11/1847 Eastern Creek
Elizabeth Hollingsworth 1779/10/19 Ware, Hertfordshire England Sarah Siggins William Hollingsworth William Dean 1/2/1839 Eastern Creek
Robert Oldfield 1780 (about) Wymondham?, Norfolk England     Hannah Constable *    
James Brown 1780/3/12 Norwich, Norfolk England Mary King Samuel Brown Rosamond Brewster    
Hannah Constable 1781 (about) Wymondham?, Norfolk England     Robert Oldfield *    
Rosamond Brewster 1772 (about) Norwich?, Norfolk England     James Brown 24/4/1843 Wymondham
Sarah Jopling 1788 (about)   England     Thomas Wilson    
Thomas Wilson 1788 Greatham England Sarah Stoddart John Wilson Sarah Jopling    
Elizabeth Graham 1791 (about)   England     William Robinson    
William Robinson 1791 Lanchester, Durham England     Elizabeth Graham    
John Stidworthy 2 1781 Torquay, Devon England     Jane Dart    
Jane Dart 1794 Brixham, Devon England     John Stidworthy 1    
James Pike 1797/4/14 Exeter, Devon England Rebecca Carpenter John Pike Anastatia Shea    
Joseph Fletcher 1800 (about)   Ireland     Margaret Cassels    
Robert Mossman 1800 (about) Glasgow ? Scotland     Isabella Stewart    
Isabella Stewart 1800 (about) Glasgow ? Scotland     Robert Mossman    
Anastatia Shea 1802 Tipperary Ireland     James Pike 19/02/1862 Parramatta
John Oldfield Constable 1806/8/4 Wymondham, Norfolk England Hannah Constable Robert Oldfield Anne Brown 1/04/1872 Moruya
Margaret Cassels 1807   Ireland     Joseph Fletcher    
Abraham Colefax 1807 York, Yorkshire England     Martha Chesworth    
Martha Chesworth 1808 (about) York? England     Abraham Colefax    
Anne Brown 1809/2/3 Wymondham, Norfolk England Rosamond Brewster James Brown John Oldfield Constable 28/09/1905 Moruya
James Wilson 1809/11/6 Haughton Le Side, Durham England     Catherine Beesley    
Catherine Beesley 1814 (about) Kilsby, Northamptonshire England     James Wilson    
Ann Dean 1819/10/27 Eastern Creek Australia Elizabeth Hollingsworth William Dean Thomas Pike 28/09/1905 Eastern Creek
James Callaghan 1821 (about) Athy, Kildare Ireland     Eliza Rymes    
Thomas Pike 1820/10/17 Galway Ireland Anastatia Shea James Pike Ann Dean 3/02/1898 Eastern Creek
Richardson Robinson 1821 Lanchester, Durham England Elizabeth Graham William Robinson Elizabeth Sanderson    
Eliza Rymes 1822 (about) Cork Ireland     James Callaghan    

Dawson Fletcher 1

1827 (about)

 

Ireland

Margaret Cassels

 Joseph Fletcher

Elizabeth Mossman

 

 

John Stidworthy 3 1818/12/19 Brixham, Devon England Jane Dart John Stidworthy 2 Ann Langdon Pollyblank    
Ann Langdon Pollyblank 1822 Churston Ferrers, Devon England Ann Langdon James Pollyblank John Stidworthy 3 1853  
Susan ??? 2 1825   Scotland     Richardson Robinson    
Elizabeth Mossman 1826 (about) Glasgow? Scotland     Dawson Fletcher 1    
William James Blomfield 1832 (about)         Ellen Rogers    
Ellen Rogers 1833 (about)         William James Blomfield    
Charles Colefax 1844 Maitland, NSW Australia Martha Chesworth Abraham Colefax Harriet Constable 11/07/1920 Moruya
Daniel Henry Callaghan 1 1846/3/23 Chelsea England Eliza Rymes James Callaghan Sarah Ann Stidworthy 15/09/1901 Rookwood
Harriet Constable 1847/4/4 Wymondham, Norfolk England Anne Brown John Oldfield Constable Charles Colefax 4/08/1941 Moruya
William Wilson 1848 Darlington, Durham England Catherine Beesley James Wilson Annie Robinson 7/04/1919 Goulburn
Sarah Ann Stidworthy 1852 Paignton, Devon England Ann Langdon Pollyblank John Stidworthy 3 Daniel Henry Callaghan 1 9/07/1925 Rookwood
William James Simmons Blomfield 1857 Eastern Creek, NSW Australia Ellen Rogers William James Blomfield Cecilia Blanche Pike 5/2/1934 Liverpool
Dawson Fletcher 2 1858/8/12 Glasgow Scotland Elizabeth Mossman Dawson Fletcher 1 Ellen Ann Colefax 28/12/1929 Rookwood
Annie Robinson 1860 Durham England     William Wilson 2/12/1886 Rookwood
Cecilia Blanche Pike 1860/9/9 Eastern Creek, NSW Australia Ann Dean Thomas Pike William James Simmons Blomfield 1921 Liverpool
Daniel Henry Callaghan 2 1877/10/22 Lyttelton New Zealand Sarah Ann Stidworthy Daniel Henry Callaghan 1 Ethel Jeffrey Wilson 20/6/1950 Goulburn
Ellen Ann Colefax 1879/6/5 Moruya, NSW Australia Harriet Constable Charles Colefax Dawson Fletcher 2 17/03/1901 Moruya
Ethel Jeffrey Wilson 1880/5/12 Darlington, Durham England Annie Robinson William Wilson Daniel Henry Callaghan 2 6/12/1955 Rookwood
Frederick Gordon Weston Blomfield 1890 Eastern Creek, NSW Australia Cecilia Blanche Pike William James Simmons Blomfield Ivy Elizabeth Fletcher 19/7/1916 Fromelles, France

Ivy Elizabeth Fletcher

1895/2/17

Newcastle, NSW

Australia

Ellen Ann Colefax

Dawson Fletcher 2

Frederick Gordon Weston Blomfield

1/1973

Sydney

Jack William Callaghan

1912/11/5

Goulburn, NSW

Australia

Ethel Jeffrey Wilson

Daniel Henry Callaghan 2

Jean Ellen Blomfield

 

 

Jean Ellen Blomfield

1916/2/13

Campbelltown, NSW

Australia

Ivy Elizabeth Fletcher

Frederick Gordon Weston Blomfield

Jack William Callaghan

20/6/1990

Sydney

 


Hertfordshire Roots

The earliest known ancestor found so far is John Siggins who was born around 1555, probably in Berkshire, UK.  John married Alice (last name unknown) and they had a son Richard who was christened 10 February 1581 in Wantage, Berkshire.

Richard had a son John who was christened 26 April 1601 in Cheshunt, Hertfordshire. John married Susan (last name unknown) and they had a son Samuel who was christened on 7 March 1640 in Cheshunt.  Samuel married Mary (last name unknown) and they had a son, also Samuel.

Samuel Siggins was christened on 2 January 1666, in Thundridge Hertfordshire about 50 Km north of London.  He married Elizabeth (last name unknown) and they had a son, again Samuel.

Samuel Siggins was christened on 23 December 1695, in Thundridge.  He married Mary (last name unknown) and they had a son Joseph who was christened 12 June 1720 in Thundridge.

Joseph married Ann (last name unknown) and they had a daughter Sarah who was christened 29 June 1743 in Ware Hertfordshire.  Sarah married William Hollingsworth on 16 November 1776 at Ware and they had a daughter Elizabeth on 19 October 1779 also at Ware.  Elizabeth was arrested and tried in London in 1803, sentenced to 7 years and transported to Australia in 1804 (see Convict Roots)..


Devonshire Roots

Parish records dating back to 1538 can be found in the Devon Records Centre in Exeter.

The oldest records found so far are for Robert P Pollyblank (born 1720) who married Christian Gay (also born 1720). Michael Langdon was born 1725 and married Ann (last name unknown).

John Stidworthy was born in 1734 in Marlborough, Devon and married Elizabeth Phillips of Ashprington. In 1758 they were living in Modbury and had a son Richard. Richard married Elizabeth Millman also born 1758 and they had a son John (2) in 1781.

John Stidworthy (2) was a cordwainer (maker of shoes and other leather goods) born in Torquay in 1781. He married Jane Dart in Brixham on 19 May 1818.

John and Jane had a son John (3) who was born on 6 December 1818 in Brixham.  By 1841 young John was living in Torquay with Thomas Andrews and his family, learning to be a mason. On 15 July 1850 at Plymouth he married Anne Langdon Polybank, (born 15 October 1822 in Churston Ferrers, Devon) and they had a son Alfred (1851) daughter Sarah Ann who was born in Paignton, Devon in 1853. Anne died in 1853 and John remarried twice, having five sons, Emanuel, Frederick, George Samuel and Albert. John continued to live in the Torquay area until at least 1891, employing apprentice masons, including sons Emanuel, George and Samuel. 

Sarah left Devon some time around 1870 and moved to New Zealand.

Meanwhile in Exeter John Pike was born on 18th August 1752.  He became a tailor, probably following a family tradition, and on 7th September 1776 he married Rebecca Carpenter who was also born in Exeter on 24th November 1756.  They both signed the register which was uncommon in those days since most people, especially women, could not write.

John and Rebecca had a son James born on 14th April 1797. He became a soldier, a Corporal in the 57th Regiment of Foot and he married Anastatia Shea of Tipperary, Ireland on 22nd August 1819.

James and Anastatia had a son Thomas, born on 17th October 1820 at Fort Nicholas, Galway in Ireland.  The family arrived in Sydney on the convict ship "Asia III" on 29th April 1825, with the 57th Regiment being assigned to guard the ship.

The family returned to England in 1830 owing to James' ill health, but returned again to Australia on the "Dunvegan Castle" on 5th November 1832, James having transferred to the 4th Kings Own Regiment.


Yorkshire Roots

William Colefax was born in Knaresborough, Yorkshire in 1778. His son Abraham Colefax was also born there 26 September, 1807.  We do not know much about his early life except that he was charged with larceny in 1828 but not convicted, then sentenced to death for house breaking on 21 March 1829 at York.  The sentence was commuted and he was transported to New South Wales on the ship Morley in the same year.  A full account of the voyage can be found here.


London Roots

The first member of the Callaghan branch we have found is James Callaghan who was born in Athy Kildare, Ireland about 1806. James married Eliza Rymes on 25 July 1836 at Holy Trinity Church in Chelsea. At the time he signed his name O'Callaghan but the O was subsequently dropped. Eliza, who signed her name Elizabeth, was born in Ireland around 1816. In 1841 they were living in Winchester Court St Olave Silver Street London with two children, James Walter and Harriet.

They had a second son Daniel Henry Callaghan I who was born on 23 March 1846 at number 4, Little Cheyne Row, Chelsea. The house is pictured opposite (with the car in the driveway). At the time Chelsea included farm land and most of the streets we find today had not been built. Little Cheyne Row, which runs off Cheyne Row, is now called Upper Cheyne Row. At that time James worked for the steam boat company, possibly the Chelsea Steamboat Company, which built Cadogan Pier and the Pier Hotel on the corner of Oakley Street and ran paddle steamer services between there and London Bridge.  Steam boats were the main means of transport in the 1840's until railways and improved roads were built.

James and Eliza seem to have fallen on hard times shortly after Daniel's birth because in 1851 they were living in a workhouse in Lambeth Norwood. James is listed as a clerk and Eliza (Elizabeth) as a seamstress with a 3 day old daughter. Daniel is now 4 and his brother James 13 and both attending the school.

James died sometime before 1861 when his son James Walter married Ellen Fox.

On the right is a slip of paper which appears to record the marriage of James Callaghan and Eliza Rymes at Chelsea in 1836. It came from Pallot's Marriage Index for England: 1780 – 1837 which pre-dates the beginning of official registration of births, deaths and marriages.

 

 

 

Daniel Henry Callaghan I married Sarah Ann Stidworthy of Devon at St. John's Church in Christchurch, New Zealand on 31 August 1875. His occupation was listed as bricklayer and hers as dressmaker. They had their first child in New Zealand: Daniel Henry Callaghan II was born in Lyttleton, near Christchurch on 22 October 1877.

 

 

 

Church of St. John the Baptist in Christchurch NZ. The foundation stone of this church was laid on St. John the Baptist's Day (24 June) 1864 and the stone-built church was consecrated on St. John the Evangelist's Day (27 Dec.) 1865.

 

 

 

They moved to Sydney Australia in 1877 and lived in 94 Cleveland Street Redfern.


Durham Roots

The Wilsons

John Wilson married Sarah Stoddart by banns in the parish of Greatham on June 6 1786.

Thomas Wilson was baptised May 16 1788 in Greatham, son of John and Sarah. Thomas married Sarah Jopling (or Jobling) by banns in the parish of Haughton on June 24 1809. Sarah came from West Auckland. Thomas' occupation was described as a servant in Husbandry (farm worker). Their first son was James.

James Wilson was born in Haughton Le Skerne, Durham county on November 6 1809 and baptised on 27 December. He married Catherine Beesley who was born in Kilsby, Northamptonshire about 1814 and they lived in Cross Lane Heighington, Durham where James was an innkeeper until at least 1861.  James and Catherine had sons William (about 1849) and Francis (about 1856).  James died sometime before 1871 and Catherine and her sons moved to Hunslet near Leeds in Yorkshire.  Somehow she also acquired a third son Thomas at this time who was born in Manchester about 1849 and who worked as a carpenter.

The Robinsons

William Robinson was born in Lanchester, Durham about 1791 and became a stonemason.  He married Elizabeth Graham on 24 May 1817 in Stanhope and they had two sons, Richardson born in 1819 and George born about 1826, all in Lanchester.

Richardson married Elizabeth Sanderson from Stanhope in 1845 and by 1851 was a master mason living in Stanhope Road, Stanhope employing two men and having two daughters,  Elizabeth about 1846, Mary in 1850 and a son John about 1848.  The family also employed a servant.  By 1861 Richardson had a new wife, Susan aged 37 from Scotland and another daughter Sophie about 1855,  and another son William about 1860.  He also had an apprentice living in the house.

By 1871 Richardson had another daughter, Annie, who was born between April - December 1861.  Annie is pictured on the right.

Annie was an accomplished organist and was presented with a medal by the Organ Committee of the Stanhope Anglican Church in 1877 when she was only 16.

Richardson was living in Quaker Square, Stanhope in 1881 and he died in 1893 aged 74.  It appears that Susan died before 1891.

By 1881 Annie's older brother William was studying medicine at Durham University.  We know that because he was visiting William Wilson's house on the day that the census was taken 3 April 1881.  By 1891 he was married to Eleanor (last name unknown) from Frosterley and living in Butts House in Stanhope where he was a registered general practitioner, employing an assistant GP James Arnott.  He had a young son and daughter and two servants.  By 1895 William had moved to Sunderland and was a now practicing as a surgeon, living at 48 John Street.  He now had a daughter and two sons and employed a governess, a cook and a housemaid.

 

On the right is the medal which Annie received in 1877 from the Stanhope Church Organ Committee.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Wilson - Robinson Marriage

William Wilson married Annie Robinson in the last quarter of 1879 in her home town of Stanhope.  By 1881 William and Annie had moved to Darlington where William had become the manager of the railways Locomotive Department.  Stockton to Darlington became the World's first steam locomotive powered railway line in 1833.  The Darlington works were built in 1863 by the Stockton and Darlington Railway and taken over by the North Eastern Railway later that year.  In 1864 it started building steam locomotives which continued up until its closure in 1966.  We are not sure when William became the manager, but in 1881 he was only 32.

The Wilsons had two children in England, Ethel Jeffrey and Frank Beesley.  Ethel was born in Darlington on 12 May 1880 and Frank on 15 February 1883. The family moved to Stanhope (pictured on the right) shortly after Frank was born and lived there until 1885 when the family emigrated to Sydney, Australia.  It is clear that Frank was given his middle name after his grandmother Catherine but Ethel's middle name is a mystery.  The only clue is that in 1881 Richardson Robinson had an Elizabeth Jeffrey living at his house.  The relationship was listed as niece, but we could find no record of his having any sisters.

 

 

 

 

 


Glasgow Roots

Joseph Fletcher was born in Ireland around 1800. He married Margaret Cassels, born around 1807 and they had a son Dawson who was born around 1827. The family moved to Glasgow, to find work in the new textiles industry and Joseph became a handloom weaver (operating a hand loom at home). By 1851 Joseph had died and the remaining family of 5 were living in 9 Hatters Closs, Glasgow. Dawson's occupation was listed as cotton weaver.

Robert Mossman was born around 1800, probably in Glasgow. He was a type-founder (someone who sets up letters on a printing block). He married Isabella Stewart and they had a daughter Elizabeth, born about 1826 in Glasgow. From the 1841 Census we know that she was 15, a dressmaker, and lived with her brother James (aged 20) in Stockwell Street which is now part of the central business district.  On the right is a picture of a dress shop in Stockwell Street.

Elizabeth married Dawson Fletcher 1, by then a brickfield labourer, on 18 December 1854 in Glasgow, and on 12 August 1858 their son, also named Dawson was born at 50 Millroad Street. Elizabeth apparently could not write but made an X on the birth certificate.

 

 

Millroad Street has been rebuilt since Dawson was born and is pictured on the right.

Dawson died in Glasgow on 5 January 1863 aged only 34 from kidney failure. His occupation was listed as engine keeper. This would have meant that he operated one of the early Newcomen industrial steam engines. Elizabeth survived Dawson, dying on 28 February 1886 aged 51 from bronchitis.

Young Dawson was only 4 when his father died and the family continued living in Glasgow. By 1881 he had become a steamboat stoker and was living at 32 St Andrew Square with his mother and sister (both named Elizabeth).  By 1884 he was working as a fireman (stoking the furnace) on the ship Fiona, built in Glasgow, running a service between Suva and Sydney, then in 1886 on the ship Corinna, also built in Glasgow, which ran a shuttle service between Launceston and Sydney. He emigrated to Australia sometime before 1891, when he married Ellen Ann Colefax on 1 July of that year.


Norfolk Roots

Wymondham is pictured on the right. The round building is the market cross built in 1618 to replace an older building destroyed in the great fire of 1615.

John Brown was born around 1710, probably in Norwich, Norfolk.  He married Elizabeth Brandon at St John de Sepulchre on 23 May 1732 and their son Samuel was baptised 15 September 1746 at Saint Peter Mancroft, Norwich.

Samuel married a widow, Mary Rogers, who was the daughter of Samuel and Ann King and was born on 10 May 1745.  They had a son James Brown who was born on 12 March 1780, in Saint John De Sepulchre, Norwich.

James married Rosamond Brewster (known as Rose) on 4 June 1798 at St John de Sepulchre.  At some point they moved to Wymondham and had a daughter Ann Brown who was born 3 February 1809. Rose died of typhus at Folly Lane, Wymondham on 24 April 1843, aged 71. The death reported by her daughter Ann Constable.

John Oldfield Constable was born in Wymondham on 4 August 1806. His mother's name was Hannah Constable and he was given the middle name Oldfield, probably the surname of his father.  Hannah married Robert Doughty on 22 November 1809 at Wymondham.  John claimed on his immigration papers to Australia in 1854 that his father's name was also John, but no John Oldfield can be found in the area at that time.

John married Ann Brown in Norfolk on 31 January 1828.  The witnesses to the marriage were Robert and Emily Oldfield.

John and Ann had 9 children in Wymondham: John Holdsworth (1828), Robert (1832), Hannah (1834), William (1836), Charles (1838), George (1840), Anne (1842), James (1844) and Harriet (1847).  John's occupation was listed as Thatcher on the 1841 Census and the family then lived at an address called Folly in Downham, the north division of Wymondham.

John and Ann and their 9 children emigrated to Australia as assisted immigrants on the sailing ship Tantivy, leaving Southampton on 3 June 1854, arriving in Sydney on 3 September 1854. Ann's younger brother James, his wife Hannah and their 6 children also came. There were 399 passengers on board, of which 10 died during the voyage of 92 days, a good time for that type of ship.

 

Convict Roots

William Dean was born 9 November 1776 by one account, in Middlesex, now part of Greater London.  Not much is known of his early life but he worked as a servant for a James Massey in Cavendish Square, London.  He was dismissed by Massey on 24 June 1795 and arrested the following day for stealing a 20 pound bank note from his former employer.  He was tried in the Old Bailey on 1 July 1795, found guilty and sentenced to death.  His age was given as 16, which conflicts with his birth record by about 2 years.

William's sentence was commuted to transportation to the colony of New South Wales for the term of his natural life.  He had been kept in the notorious Newgate Prison (pictured on the right), being released on 28 September 1797 and transferred to the prison hulk La Fortunιe, a French frigate captured by the British in the West Indies in 1779 which was moored in Langston Harbour near Plymouth.  Conditions on the hulks were very basic with one straw bed and a blanket shared between two men and typhoid was a common cause of death.  Convicts who died at the Fort were buried weekly in mass graves, because they were considered unworthy to be buried in a churchyard.

Convicts on the hulks were employed (health permitting) on the Public Works at Cumberland Fort, built to protect the entrance to the harbour.  They worked in chain gangs of 2 to 4 men.  William worked on the construction of the moat which entailed the re-shoring of the dry ditch walls.  On 24 November 1798 he was amongst ninety prisoners transferred from La Fortunιe and Ceres hulks to the ship Hillsborough.  His age was given as 24.  Sir Jerome Fitzpatrick inspected the ship in the Thames and recommended strongly that no prisoners from the hulks be taken because of the risk of typhus or "jail fever", but his advice was ignored.

 

 

Convicts bound for N.S.W. were given an allowance consisting of two jackets, one waistcoat, one pair of breeches, two shirts, one hat, one woollen cap, two pairs of shoes and two pairs of stockings.  The Hillsborough left Portland Roads, England on 23 December 1798 under Master William Hingston and arrived  in Sydney Cove on 26 July 1799.  A detailed account of the voyage is included in Appendix 3, based on diaries kept by William Noah, a convict, and Dr Johannes Vanderkemp, a missionary who travelled as far as Capetown.

On the right is a painting by William John Huggins of the 'Asia', an East India Company ship similar to the Hillsborough.

The Hillsborough became known as "The Death Ship" because of the 300 convicts who left England only 205 survived the journey and four more died within a week of arrival.  The state of the men was so bad that Governor John Hunter wrote to the Duke of Portland on 27 July:

"Figure to yourself a ship having out of three hundred people embark'd in England, and having stopped for their refreshment several weeks at the Cape of Good Hope, yet hav'g upon her voyage buried of the above number ninety-five, and four since landing; those who still survive are in the most sickly and wretched state, put on board the ship in England with the cloaths only in which they stood, consequently arriv'd here naked, where cloathing is not to be found."

As a result of the Governor's representations, an inquiry was held by the four Transport Commissioners in London.  Sir Jerome Fitzpatrick, Inspector-General of Health, stated that "he objected to any of the convicts at Langstone Harbour being embarked on the Hillsborough, as jail fever had raged there with much violence".  Of the five convicts he insisted on being returned to the hulks, all died within a few days.

Conditions on future voyages did improve with none having anything like the death toll of the Hillsborough.


William Dean survived the trip and was sent to Parramatta.

Elizabeth Hollingsworth was born in Ware, Hertfordshire 19 October 1779, but moved to London and took up a position as a servant for a broker, William Adams.  She was tried on 16 February 1803 for stealing a one pound bank note from her employer, found guilty and sentenced to transportation for 7 years.  She was held for about 9 months in Newgate Prison before being transferred to the ship Experiment 1 on 16 November 1803.  Experiment sailed from Spithead on 6 December 1803 and soon ran into bad weather.  She was damaged by a gale in the Bay of Biscay and had to return to Cowes to mend her bowsprit and mount a new topgallant mast.  She left Cowes on 2 January 1804 and arrived in Sydney 24 June 1804 after spending a month in Rio De Janeiro en route. Two of the settlers' wives died on the voyage, as did 4 or 5 of the 130 female convicts on board.

Elizabeth survived and was sent to the "Female Factory" at Parramatta.


Arrival In New South Wales

Summarising the arrival of Callaghan ancestors in Australia we have:

The Callaghan Family in Australia

Daniel Henry and Sarah Ann Callaghan arrived in Sydney with their baby son Daniel Henry and had 6 other children: Ellen (c 1879), May (c 1883), Frederick (1886), Alfred (1889), Walter (1896) and one other male deceased. The lived in 94 Cleveland Street Redfern until Daniel senior died on 15 September 1901.  The block of houses in Cleveland Street has since been demolished and units built in their place.  On the right is a picture of Alfred, Walter (seated) and Daniel.

Sarah moved to a house on the corner of Shellcote Street and Noble Ave in what is now Chullora where she lived with Alfred and Walter who worked in the timber yard of Langdon & Langdon at Petersham until they joined the army at the start of the war.

Callaghans in World War I

Alfred and Walter both volunteered for service in World War I and were sent to Europe where both of them were killed in action. Alfred (known as Bert) was mentioned twice in despatches, being described by the 1st Australian Division commander as "a fearless and enterprising leader" who "inspires great confidence in his men by his initiative and coolness".  He was promoted to sergeant and recommended for a medal but died in Belgium on 6 October 1917 before it could be awarded.

Walter was made acting corporal but also died in France on 16 September 1918 and is buried at Rouen.

Sarah moved from her home in Chullora to 14 Henry Street Lewisham during the war.

 

 

Daniel Henry junior moved from Sydney to Burracoppin in Western Australia in March 1897 and later to Goulburn in connection with his job with the Railways Department. He was an excellent swimmer and competed with others who represented Australia in the Olympics. He married Ethel Jeffrey Wilson on 12 March 1902 in Goulburn.

Daniel and Ethel's wedding photo from 1902 is shown on the right.

Daniel is buried at Rookwood Cemetery reference T6580. The headstone also commemorates their two sons Alfred and Walter. The headstone was broken by vandals around July 2006.

The Wilsons move to Goulburn

The Wilson family lived in Sydney where another daughter, Annie Robinson, was born in 1886.  Her mother, also Annie died the same year.   William re-married to Phoebe Grimble in 1898.  Around 1900 the family moved to Goulburn in NSW where William took up a position as a mechanic with the Railways Department working on steam locomotives. Ethel married Daniel Henry Callaghan II at Goulburn on 12 March 1902.

 

 

 

Callaghans born in Australia - First Generation

Daniel and Ethel Callaghan had 4 children, pictured on the right in Goulburn February 1914.

Nellie, born 12 August 1903, the eldest, holding her doll "Alison", contracted meningitis and died 28 June 1918 aged 14,

Geoffrey Daniel Wilson,  born 1909 wearing the sailor suit,

Jack William, born 5 November 1912 in front with the toy dog,

Valerie Alice,  born 1907, also holding a doll.

The family moved to Sydney in 1918 after the death of Nellie, living first at 100 The Boulevard, then Daniel purchased a property at 30 Denison Road Lewisham where the family lived for many years. He also purchased a property at 171 Frederick Street Ashfield.

At that time Sarah Ann lived at 14 Henry Street Lewisham (house now demolished). until she died on 9 July 1925 and is buried with her husband in Rookwood Cemetery reference T6580. Note that the Rookwood Cemetery records list Sarah as being buried at this site although there is no mention of her on the headstone. The office records wrongly record her husband as David. Her grandson Jack Callaghan used to visit her regularly as a child and she would give him a penny each time. He remembers her as not very tall and slightly plump.

Daniel and Ethel bought another property in 20 Elouera Rd Avalon and lived there until Daniel died on 20 June 1950. On the right is a picture of Daniel and Ethel with Anne (Ethel's sister) at the Avalon house around 1942. Daniel is buried at Goulburn Cemetery. Ethel lived with her son Geoffrey at 171 Frederick St Ashfield until she died on 6 December 1955. She is buried in Rookwood Cemetery Ref EE G/365 near her sister Anne Ref EE G/279, who died on 14 August 1950.

 

 

 

 

Western Sydney Settlers

William Dean's fortunes improved considerably following his arrival in Parramatta.  In 1811 he was given a Ticket of Leave and then a Conditional Pardon by the new Governor, Lachlan Macquarie.  In 1817 he received two grants of land on condition that he build facilities for travellers on the Western Road (now Great Western Hwy).  One grant was of 50 acres on the northern side of the Western Road  bordered by Eastern Creek to the east and (present day) Belmore Road to the west. The second grant, of 100 acres was located directly opposite on the southern side of the Western Road. Further grants totalling 135 acres were made to him over the next ten years.

He became publican of the "Bush Inn", later changed to "The Corporation Inn" on the Western Road at Eastern Creek, about 10 miles from Parramatta close to the intersection of present day Rooty Hill Road.  He acquired the nickname "Lumpy" because of his bulk - he was over 6 feet tall and weighed 22 stone.

The inn was well located, being about 7 hours travelling time by coach from Sydney and William soon became wealthy.  He also raised cattle and grew wheat on his properties.  Adjacent to the inn on the opposite side of the road was a tollhouse and William was responsible for collecting tolls from travellers to reimburse the Government for the construction and maintenance of the road.  The toll for a cart drawn by one horse was 4 pence.

 

A Drawing, thought to be William Dean standing in the dock, found amongst the papers of Windsor Court

(Picture from 'William Dean, A Colourful Colonial Character by Margaret Allen)

 

 

 

 

William ‘Lumpy’ Dean’s spectacular red cedar chair

William also employed Elizabeth Hollingsworth and they were married in St John's Church Parramatta on 25 December 1806, number 216 in the parish register.  William signed the register and Elizabeth marked with an X, suggesting she could not write, however the Sydney Gazette of 16 April 1809 noted that a letter had arrived in Sydney Cove for her, so possibly she could read.

St John's was the first church built in Australia and opened in April 1803.

By 1809 the Dean family, now numbering 4, had moved to South Creek, working for Samuel Marsden at his Mamre Farm Property.

By 1828 William owned 220 acres, 8 horses and 100 cattle as well as the Bush Inn.

William and Elizabeth had eight children:

William became a well known and popular character in the Eastern Creek area.  He had several brushes with the law during his time in the colony, for example:

John Slater was the local constable who was knocked to the ground in the scuffle and was unable to subdue William until he received the assistance of two of William's sons and two servants.  The fact that it took five men to restrain him shows how physically powerful William was.  At that time he was aged about 50.

On the charge of furious driving, William was able to prove to the court that he had hired his cart to a William Newman, but he was still fined 5 shillings with no costs.

The charges of stealing cattle were brought against William and his son John.  John was found guilty and sentenced to transportation to Van Diemen's Land for life.  William was acquitted.  A character witness for the defence, a Mr Charles Smith described William as "a blustering rough-spoken man, and that he had made himself many enemies by his bluntness".  The Sydney Morning Herald reported the outcome this way:

"Upon the verdict being declared, the mob in the court-house commenced clapping of hands, and evincing their joy at the verdict, when His honor ordered the constables to take the disturbers into custody, remarking on the shameless conduct of men who called themselves Englishmen in a court of justice."

Elizabeth Hollingsworth died 1 February 1839 and is buried at Parramatta Cemetery Section 2, Row E grave 2.

William Dean died 7 November 1847 at Eastern Creek and is buried with Elizabeth.  The Sydney Morning Herald on 11 November printed the following obituary:

"An Old Colonist - The funeral of the late Mr William Dean, of the Western Road, took place yesterday. Mr Dean, better known by the name of, from his extreme corpulency "Lumpy Dean" was a very old colonists, having arrived here in the year 1799. He, until within a very few years past, kept a public house on the Western road, and in which line he was a well-known and equally respected as the late John Ireland on the Sydney one. His anecdotes of the primeval days of the Colony were both instructive and entertaining, and his details of then considered great exploratory expeditions, when settlers went ten miles into the bush from their location in order to find cattle runs, were rich in their extreme, his conduct and manners during nearly half a centurys sojourn in the colony procured him that esteem and respect which a numerous attendance at the last obsequies yesterday witness. Mr Dean was 78 years of age."

In 1982 Blacktown Council named the suburb of Dean Park in honour of William and his family and also the William Dean Public School.

Further information on William and Elizabeth Dean is included in the Appendix including court records.

Ann Dean married Thomas Pike on 12 September 1847 at St Bartholomew's Church at Prospect.  Ann and Thomas are pictured on the right.

Ann and her sister Martha inherited the Bush Inn and the 60 acres on which it stood from her father William Dean and the Pike's eventually became the innkeepers of what was then called "The Old House at Home".  In the 1850's gold was discovered in western N.S.W. and the inn became a popular stopover place for travellers to and from the goldfields.  It became very profitable for the Pike family whose descendents lived there until its demolition around 1938.

Thomas and Ann had a 8 children, including a daughter Cecilia Blanche born on 9 September 1860.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Right: The "Bush Inn" subsequently the "Old House at Home" on the Western Road pictured about 1890.

Probably Ann and Martha Dean are seated in the foreground.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Right: The Dean family home "Hollinsworth" on the north side of the Western Road, was located almost directly opposite the "Bush Inn".  It was demolished in 1961 to allow the widening of the Great Western Highway.  All that remains today is the old well head behind the house, which is a brick dome shaped construction standing almost 2 metres high. Photo by Dean Watts

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Blomfields

The first Blomfield we have found is William James Blomfield, occupation listed as labourer,  who married Ellen Rogers at Liverpool in 1861. They only appear to have had one child, William James Simmons Blomfield, who was born in 1857 at Kingston (now Newtown) in NSW.

William James Simmons Blomfield married Cecilia Blanche Pike at St Marys about 1878.  Cecilia (who preferred to be called Blanche) inherited 10 acres of land at Eastern Creek from her father Thomas, part of the 60 acres that his wife Ann had inherited from William Dean.

Blanche and William Blomfield had 10 children:

Cecilia died in 1921 and is buried at Liverpool. William moved to Mudgee district and was unfortunately struck by a motor lorry on 4 February 1934 at Millsville and died the following day at the Braeholme Private Hospital in Mudgee at the age of 77. A Coroner's inquest held at Mudgee Court House on 17 February found that the lorry had been negligently driven at the time. William was buried at Liverpool Anglican Cemetery on 6 February 1934.

The Colefaxes in Maitland

In 1840 it was recorded by Rev. G.K. Rusden that he had refused to allow Abraham Colefax to marry Martha Chesworth on the grounds that Abraham had stated upon his arrival in N.S.W. that he was already married with two children. There is no record of their marriage, but they had four children:

The Moruya Era

A granite mine opened in Moruya in the 1860's which became the main employer in the area. It was the source of the granite used in the construction of the pylons of the Sydney Harbour Bridge.

John Oldfield Constable died at "Gundary" Moruya on 1 April 1872. His wife Ann died on 14 March 1887. Both are buried in Moruya Cemetery CE Section.

The youngest of the Constables, Harriet married Charles Colefax on 8 July 1868 at Newstead, Moruya Heads. They had 13 children between 1868 and 1891.  The ones we are most interested in are:

Ellen Ann Colefax married Dawson Fletcher on 1 July 1891 at Moruya. They had a son Charles (1892) and two daughters Ivy Elizabeth (17 February 1895) and Margaret (1897) before Ellen died in 1901, apparently during the birth of another daughter Ellen Ann.  The death is recorded at Stroud rather than Moruya, not far from where her husband was raised. She was buried in Moruya CE

Dawson remarried Kate B Carlson in 1902 in Sydney and died in Randwick on 28 December 1929.  He is buried in Rookwood Cemetery Presbyterian Section 5E.

Move to Sydney

Ivy Fletcher married Frederick Gordon Weston Blomfield from Eastern Creek in 1916. They moved to "Gilrala" in Delamere St Canley Vale and had a daughter, Jean Ellen who was born in Campbelltown on 13 February 1916. Frederick was born about 1892 and was killed in action in World War I in the Battle of Fromelles on 19 July 1916.  He is buried in Fromelles Nord, France.

 

Photo of Ivy Fletcher around 1915

Taken from a card sent by her sister Margaret on her 21st birthday, 17 Feb 1916

 

Frederick Gordon Weston Blomfield
Taken from a badge he owned in 1915 - The year before he was killed

 

Ivy moved to 35 Rawson Street Lidcombe where she lived with Jean.  Ivy is pictured on the right at 35 Rawson Street, next to Beryl Fletcher with baby Arthur, Ivy's sister Margaret (Margo), daughter Jean and Laura Wanless (nee Fletcher).  The photo was probably taken at Christmas 1944.

Beryl is the wife of John Fletcher (known as Jock), the son of Dawson by his second wife Kate. Laura is John's sister.

Ivy never remarried after the death of Frederick Blomfield and died January 1973.

 

 

 

Jean Blomfield met Jack Callaghan at a dance in the Dulwich Hill Masonic Hall in 1934 and on 24 December 1938 they were married at Petersham. They lived in Artarmon then Cremorne Point and Jack worked as a carpenter while Jean worked at Woolworths in Crows Nest. The company that Jack was working for went into liquidation and he was called up for military service in 1942, as Australia was now involved in World War II. He served mostly in Queensland. His regiment was sent to New Guinea in 1944 but he remained in Australia after contracting Dengue Fever. The war ended on August 15 1945 and he was discharged from the Army, returning to the house at Lidcombe.

 

 

 

 

Jack and Jean Callaghan's Wedding December 1938.

The Callaghan Family in Australia - Generation 2

Jack and Jean had a son, Bruce John, who was born 1 October 1946 at King George V Hospital Camperdown. They continued to live at Lidcombe until 1949, when they moved into a garage at 176 Virgil Avenue, Chester Hill while they had a house built on the block. On 12 September 1950 a daughter, Helen Anne, was born and the four lived in the garage while the house was completed. The house was built by Herbert Rowland Colefax, the brother of Ellen Ann Colefax, Jean's Grandmother. The house was completed in 1952 and is shown in a photo taken in January 1955. The garage can be seen on the right hand side at the back.

 

 

 


Appendix 1 - Court Proceedings

Proceedings of the Old Bailey Middlesex

July 1 1795 - Trial of William Dean charged with stealing £20

May 11 1796 - William Dean is sentenced to death after an unsuccessful appeal by his counsel

February 16 1803 - Trial of Elizabeth Hollingsworth for stealing £1

Proceedings of the Supreme Court of New South Wales

12 May 1836 - William and John Dean charged with stealing cattle.

R. v. Deane and Deane

Supreme Court of New South Wales

Dowling A.C.J., 12 May 1836

Source: Sydney Herald, 16 May 1836

Thursday, May 12. - Before His Honor Mr. Chief Justice Dowling.

On the opening of the Court the Clerk called the pannel, and the following Jurors were fined for non attendance:- Thomas Burdekin, Esq., £5; Charles Beilby, Esq., £5; John Black, Esq., £5; William Barton, Esq., £5, and Mr. Charles Bones, 40s.

When the Clerk ballotted the Jury, Mr. Attorney-General addressed the Court, and said that in the absence of almost all the special Jurors, he would not go on with the case of the Deanes for stealing and receiving cattle. The names that had been called were almost all-publicans, and in the absence of the merchants he would not risk the administration of justice in other hands; and he must remark, that the persons who wished to bring the jury system into disrepute were the very persons who remained away, because 40s. or £5 was a small sum to them, and they did not care about it. He had no hesitation in saying that they had other motives in stopping away from their duty; and the Court must consider that he could not challenge, except from cause, which, as the parties were so little known to him, was tantamount to no challenge at all; he could only put them to one side until the pannel had been gone through, when the very parties to whom he objected might then be put on the Jury.

The Clerk then proceeded to call the Jury, and the following challenges were made: - Edward Borton, publican, by the Attorney-General; William Blackwell, brewer, by the Prisoners; William Buthee, publican, by the Attorney-General; Robert Batts, publican, by the Attorney-General; William Barnes, publican, by the Attorney-General; William Bruce, publican, by the Attorney-General; S. M. Burroughs, land-holder, by the prisoners; Joseph Barnett, publican, by the Attorney-General; Gregory Board, by the Attorney-General.

S. W. Broughton, tailor, was called, when Mr. Thomas Broughton stated that his name was no S. W. Broughton, and objected to sit; he was accordingly excused. Mr. - Brown, junior, saddler, pleaded being a minor, and no householder, and was excused accordingly.

The following Jury were then sworn:- Robert Bourne, mercer; Thomas Buxton, wheelwright; William Brady, cabinetmaker; John Burt, baker; James Bibb, blacksmith; Samuel Benjamin, shopkeeper; Richard Binning, saddler; Robert Broad, silversmith; James Blanch, ironmonger; William Byrne, shoemaker; Thomas Byrne, grocer; George Buckingham, grocer.

John Deane stood indicted for stealing three head of cattle, the property of W. C. Wentworth, Esq., at Penrith, on the 15th of January last; and William Deane, for receiving the same, well knowing them to have been stolen.

Thomas Ashby, a butcher, at Parramatta, deposed that on a Saturday, some time in January, he received notice from John Dean that he had brought a lot of cattle down the country for sale, and witness said he would go out and look at them; he afterwards saw a young man named Beazley, also a butcher, and they agreed to go together on Monday morning; on Monday morning witness called at Beazley's, and was told that he and John Deane had started shortly before, on which witness rode on and overtook them about three miles on the road; they all three proceeded to William Deane's house, on the western road; when they got there, there was a lot of cattle, between thirty and forty, in a yard opposite William Dean's house, and witness selected eighteen head out of the lot, which were kept in the yard, and the others were turned out in a paddock; during the time the cattle were being drafted, William Deane stood at the fence looking on, and a dispute having occurred about the price, he said ``What haven't you dealt yet;" William Deane said he had one beast in the lost; the price was at last agreed on at £4 a head, and John Deane stating that he was in want of some money to take up a bill due at Sydney, witness paid him £41 10s. out of the price of the cattle, £71 10s., for which he took a receipt on the bottom of the list describing the cattle given to him by John Deane; there were various brands on the cattle, some JD with numbers, some WW, and others; but witness, from the public manner in which the sale was effected, had no suspicion of unfair dealing; the price he considered a fair one, as the cattle were not first quality, and some of them very poor; the three head of cattle claimed by Mr. Wentworth were amongst the lot purchased from John Deane.

William Charles Wentworth. - In consequence of information I received from Ashby the butcher, I proceeded, with a man named Hugh Taylor, on the morning of Thursday the 28th of January, to William Deane's house, on the western road; on my arrival there, I saw a lot of cattle in a pound or yard opposite Deane's house, in charge of Proctor, the chief constable of Penrith, and the prisoner, William Deane, was there; almost the moment I entered, I saw a cow which I knew to be mine, and shortly after two heifers which I also recognised; I asked William Deane how, knowing what a notorious cattle-stealer his son John was, he could allow him to bring a lot of cattle with sixteen or seventeen different brands to his place; at the first view I guessed that there was that number, but, as a matter of fact, there were only thirteen different brands in thirty-five head of cattle; William Deane replied to me ``I assure you Mr. Wentworth that the cattle only arrived yesterday, when they were put into the paddock, and I had no opportunity of seeing them before this morning;" knowing from what Ashby had told me, that he was telling me a lie, I said to him ``do you persist in saying that they did not arrive until yesterday, and that you had no opportunity of seeing them before this morning," and I cautioned him to be careful how he answered, and I called on Proctor to witness the answer; he still persisted in the story; I then said to him, ``Why, it is impossible for any man to see this lot of cattle without his knowing them to be stolen; besides, there are only two or three head which purport to be your cattle, and I know them to belong to John Dickson;" to which he replied, ``What, to John Dickson? why, his cattle are considered fair game for any one, and are any man's property;" I said to him, ``Mr. Deane, if this is the sort of morality you instill into your children, I am not surprised that they are what they are;" the cattle I identified were one black cow with a white back, branded with a W on the off hip and a W on the off shoulder, a red heifer branded in the same way, and a spotted heifer branded with a single W; I was quite sure of their identity both by the breed of the cattle and by the brand; some short time after, I went to Penrith to give my deposition; when at the court-house, the prisoner, William Deane, came up to me and said, ``Mr. Wentworth, I am now satisfied that the cattle are all wrong, and my son must be a great scoundrel to bring this on me," to which I answered, ``Mr. Deane, you did not discover that to-day; you knew it before;" the cattle were given up to me by the magistrates, and are now in my possession.

Cross-examined. - Some time back, I sold John Deane a lot of wild cattle, which were running in the new country unreclaimed; they were branded with DW and W, and I sold them because I could not get them in; the cattle in question were none of those, but my own private cattle of a very select heard, which I was particular in breeding at Toongabbee; I have no doubt but the cattle were stolen two years back, driven up to Argyle, kept there for some time, and brought down again for sale; it will be two years next month since I gave up possession of the Toongabbee estate, and my cattle were all removed at that time, and branded before removed; Mr. Atkins took the farm from my brother, and entered on it when I left, and I sold him a few cattle from my heard; Hopkins is my assigned servant, and used to milk the cows on the Toongabbee estate; I must state that I was quite surprised on going to Deane's to see my private cattle there; I had received information that John Deane had some of my cattle, but I expected to find those branded with my father's brand, and not my private cattle; I cannot swear that I did see the three head of cattle I saw at Deane's before then, but I am nearly certain that I saw the black cow, and I am positive they are none of those I sold to Mr. Atkins; I brand my cattle in various ways; I used to brand them with WCW, but gave that up on account of the brand being so large and clumsy; I also brand WW; when at the court at Penrith, there were persons who said that the cow had never had a calf, but Hopkins said she had, and he had milked her; and since she was delivered up to me she has dropped a calf, and goes into the bail like an old milker, which proves that Hopkins was right in his assertion, and that those who stated the contrary were wrong; William Deane was not in a passion when I said that his son was a notorious cattle stealer; he replied that his son had no business to be a cattle-stealer, as he had given him full and fair, and set him up in the world; I do not know that William Deane is deaf; I knew him to sham deafness to avoid sitting on the Jury, but persons who know him better than I do have stated to the contrary, and have relished it as a good joke, and I have been told that he made a boast of it himself; I sometimes brand my cattle on the neck, but always with WW; and the reason of my doing so is to distinguish the different breeds, so that I may not be deceived in crossing the breed; I should say that I have missed at least fifty head of cattle from the Toongabbee estate from time to time, and those I did miss were all my best cattle; I knew where they went to, but I could never bring it home to the parties; I think the cow must be three years old, and the heifers about two years and one month; some of the cattle I saw at Deane's were very poor and would only have been fit to throw into a rough contract; I was much dissatisfied with Ashby's conduct, and told him at the time that he had given too little for the cattle.

William Hopkins, a milkman, in the service of Mr. Wentworth, stated that Mr. W. had taken him up to Penrith to look at some cattle; and he there saw a black cow which he knew to belong to Mr. W., as he had milked her about eighteen months ago, at Toongabbee; she was branded W on the off thigh, and W on the off shoulder; he also saw two heifers which he knew from having milked the mothers when they were calves; the mothers were at Mr. Wentworth's station at Bathurst; he did not recollect the cow being branded, but had assisted to brand the heifers. (This witness, who was an old man, was rather vague in his description of the dates, which appeared only the effect of ignorance and forgetfulness.)

John Proctor, chief constable at Penrith, deposed that in consequence of a letter he received from Captain Savage, he proceeded to William Deane's house on the Western Road, and took charge of a lot of cattle which he conveyed to Penrith, and took an account of. The list produced was a true description of the cattle he so seized. (This witness corroborated the whole of Mr. Wentworth's testimony as to what passed in the stockyard between Mr. W. and William Deane.)

Charles Castles, a constable at Penrith, accompanied Mr. Hayes into a paddock belonging to William Deane, to look for a bullock belonging to Mr. Hayes, which had broke out of Deane's yard, and there saw a lot of cattle having seventeen or eighteen different brands on them, which, considering to be very suspicious, he told Mr. Hayes so, and he concurred with witness, and advised him to keep his eye on them. When they left the paddock and went to Deane's house, he began to abuse Mr. Hayes, asking him what business he had to go into his paddock to look at his cattle without permission. Witness gave information to Captain Savage, who desired him to keep charge of them, and assistance should b sent to him, and accordingly he was joined by Proctor; William Deane told witness that he had one or two head of cattle in the lot, and witness supposed him to be part owner of the cattle from the interest he took in them; witness saw Thomas Deane there just before Mr. Savage arrived, but he absconded, and has not been seen since; one of the cattle was sold to Captain Okeden, of Minchinbury, who drove it away; witness not thinking it safe to go after one at the risk of losing the rest, and knowing if he lost the meat, he was sure of the hide; when Captain Okeden drove the beast away, William Deane stood in the middle of the road, and his men drove the beast out of the paddock; the beast was branded JS No. 3, and the hide is now at Windsor court-house, but nothing has been done in that matter. (This witness corroborated the former testimony as to other points.)

This was the case for the prosecution.

For the defence, Mr. Charles Smith state that he had known William Deane for fifteen years, and had a high opinion of his honesty; knew him to be a blustering rough-spoken man, and that he had made himself many enemies by his bluntness; but was certain that he would not knowingly commit a dishonest act. - Mr. R Therry said that he was present at Windsor Quarter Sessions, about two or three years ago, when William Deane was charged with receiving cattle, and that he was then acquitted; but on what grounds, being a question entirely for the Jury, he could not speak. - Mr. Robert Nichols deposed that William Deane was honorably acquitted of the charge against him at Windsor, and witness thought very justly so, as he was satisfied of his innocence. - Mr. John Thorne had known William Deane many years, and never knew anything bad of him. - Mr. J. H. Grose gave William Deane a high character for integrity, when he spoke of from experience for many years, during which time he had had large commercial dealings with him; and if he were acquitted on this charge would lend him £1000 without security or any acknowledgment of the debt. - Written characters from the Rev. Henry Fulton and Dr. Harris were put in and read by consent of the Crown officer.

His Honor summed up at great length, read the whole evidence from his notes, and remarked that a strong feature in the case was the prisoners not bringing forward any evidence to account for the cattle being in their possession, when it appeared in evidence that they had said the cattle could all be accounted for; also, the circumstance of William Deane denying having seen them before the Thursday morning, when Ashby had sworn that he was present on the Monday when they were drafted. Was this what would be expected from a man who was really innocent? The Jury must also look to the character given to the prisoner William Deane, but character could not be considered if the fact were clear. If the Jury had any reasonable doubt, of the prisoner's guilt, then they would give the prisoner the benefit of the character, and acquit him; but if they had no reasonable doubt, they must reject the character altogether. With respect to the prisoners having been tried before and honorably acquitted, they had nothing to do; they must try the case by the evidence laid before them that day, and not allow their minds to be biassed by any former proceedings. He must remark, however, that a verdict of not guilty did not necessarily imply an honorable acquittal, for a man might be found not guilty by the case breaking down for want of evidence, or by a technical objection, which would not amount to an honorable acquittal. The Scotch law provided a remedy for this doubt, by allowing an intermediate and very salutary verdict of ``not proven," which was given when the Jury were not satisfied of the innocence of the party accused, but had not sufficient evidence to convict him; and by this means the verdict of not guilty was considered an exoneration from any guilty knowledge. The English law did not allow of this, which was frequently to be regretted, as the degree of a prisoner's knowledge of a transaction was left a matter of doubt by the verdict of not guilty. The Jury, however, would take all these circumstances into consideration and give them weight for what they were worth.

The Jury retired, and after an absence of two hours returned into court, and required His Honor to read the evidence of Mr. Wentworth, Thomas Ashby, and Charles Castles; the foreman stating that the Jury differed as to whether the cattle were not dispersed between the Monday and Thursday following. His Honor read the evidence through, and the Jury again retired for half an hour, when they returned into the court and delivered a verdict of Guilty against John Deane; William Deane, Not Guilty.

Upon the verdict being declared, the mob in the court-house commenced clapping of hands, and evincing their joy at the verdict, when His honor ordered the constables to take the disturbers into custody, remarking on the shameless conduct of men who called themselves Englishmen in a court of justice.

William Deane was then discharged, and the Attorney-General prayed the judgment of the court on John Deane.

His Honor, in passing sentence, remarked that it was pitiable to see a young man, a native of the Colony, in the disgraceful situation in which he stood. He could not but regret, in common with every thinking man, the obloquy that was thrown on that body by the prisoner's conviction. He pitied the prisoner, because he had not received the benefit of a good example; had he had the advantage of the wise counsel of a good and virtuous father, as it had been represented that day he had had, he would not have stood in the disgraceful place he occupied; but as it was, the old man (his father) and his family would share the disgrace that must attach to his guilt. He had no discretion in the sentence he must pass upon him, which was, that he be transported from the Colony for the period of his natural life.

Notes

See also Australian, 17 May 1836. The Australian, 13 May 1836, noted that the elder of the two defendants was known as Lumpy Dean.

``Convict" juries were part of the great controversy over constitutional questions at this time: see for example, Australian, 17 May 1836. On the controversies, see the footnotes to R. v. Murrell, 1836; and see Burton's Speech to Jury, 1835.


Appendix 2 - Legal Documents

Land Grant to William Dean by Governor Lachlan Macquarie

Tollhouse Agreement Signed by William Dean and others


Appendix 3 - Voyages to Australia

Voyage of the Hillsborough

Map of the World showing the voyage of the Hillsborough 23 Dec 1798 to 26 Jul 1799

We have a large amount of information regarding the 1798-99 voyage to Sydney, due largely to a detailed diary kept by one of the convicts, William Noah, a silversmith from Shropshire transported for stealing lead.  Noah kept entries for every day from his arrival at the ship in London on 17 October 1798 until they were dispersed at Sydney on 30 July 1799.  The detail is extraordinary covering details of weather, wind directions, ships course settings, sextant readings, which sails were used, landmarks passed and all significant events on board including the date of every convict death.  It is clear that Noah, being chained below decks for up to 23 hours per day, must have had access to view the ship’s log and therefore had befriended one of the crew.  Noah also gives us geographical details of some of the ports of call suggesting upon reaching Sydney, he had access to an Encyclopedia Britannica which was first published in Edinburgh in 1768.

Also on board were six missionaries led by Dr Johannes Theodosius Vanderkemp M.D. from the London Missionary Society, who was bound for South Africa to teach Christianity to the Hottentots.  Vanderkemp also kept a diary of the voyage and he and the brethren visited the sick convicts and at one point convinced them not to mutiny.  He wrote about the conditions on the ship and the danger to the missionaries:

"But our brethren were not only preaching and teaching, but subjected to the painful and dangerous employment of visiting the hospital, and attending the dying beds of those who now were sorely afflicted with a putrid and pestilential fever, a misery which hardly any convict ship escapes, considering the persons who come aboard from jails and hulks, and the place where they are confined in irons; the dreary darkness of which, the closeness, the heat, and putrid effluvia, are inconceivable to those who have not visited these abodes of wretchedness, and with the clank of the chains, affords the strongest idea of Hell, and of the damned, which can be conceived. Disease now advanced with rapid strides, and death began to make havoc among the convicts. Our intrepid brethren intermitted none of their friendly offices, but visited the hospital, and stood over the beds of the dying, exposed to all the danger of so dreadfully infectious a situation, and earnestly employed in endeavouring to pluck those brands from the burning."

The Hillsborough was a large and roomy ship of 764 tons and, according to the Transport Commissioners, had been fitted out on an improved plan; the bars on the prison being built far apart to admit the air more freely.  Convicts were kept chained in double irons on the Orlop, or lowest deck where there were no portholes to allow light or fresh air.

The rations on board consisted of salt pork, pease biscuits, burgo, dried fish, Portugal soup and occasionally plum pudding and bread.  Once they had boiled rice as a treat.  Each man was issued with six quarts and a pint of water per week, but sometimes they received beer or wine.  Fresh food was available when they were in port.  A couple of times they managed to catch sharks while at sea using a rope as a lasso.

Search for Army Deserters on Board - Lieutenant Attacked by Convicts

On 18 December, while the ship was still in port, a lieutenant came on board looking for deserters and ventured into the area occupied by the convicts.  They attacked him and took his weapons and tore his clothes before releasing him.  It is interesting to compare the difference in the attitude of the convicts towards the authorities and the missionaries.  Noah's account of the incident:

"A Press Gang came aboard with a Lieutenant who was so imprudent to venture among the convicts, which had liked to prove fatal to him. Before he got down the forward hatchway they seized him through the battens, tore his clothes, got his scabbard and stamped him in the face. With difficulty he got away, so great was the fury of the convicts against this class of people."

Dr Vanderkemp gave this account:

"It being suspected that deserters from the men-of-war had taken refuge with the convicts in the Orlop Deck, an officer with his gang were sent aboard to make a search. But no sooner had the officer gone below than the convicts seized him, snatched his dagger, and wounded him. He cried out for mercy, and was released with the loss of hat, dagger, and the rending of his clothes, and counted himself fortunate in not being murdered."

When Captain Hingston heard of this assault he warned the missionaries never to enter the orlop deck, because they would be hustled and robbed.
"But,"
wrote Dr Vanderkemp, "they descended without fear, distributed Bibles and books, were received with reverence, and heard with attention from the first to the last."

Departing England

The ship left Portland Roads at 8 a.m. on 23 December 1798 carrying 303 convicts, 6 convict wives, 6 passengers and 73 crew, 388 in all, along with a load of coal for Capetown.  The Master was William Hingston and the surgeon was John Justice William Kunst.  The passengers were the six gentlemen missionaries and the only convict wife we can identify was George Crossley's wife Anna Maria.  Crossley's occupation was listed as attorney and he paid 150 guineas for her journey.  The owners of the ship were paid £18 per convict with a £4.10.6 bonus if they survived the journey. The Hillsborough travelled in convoy with other ships for protection (Commodore, Amphion and Duff), both from the elements and from enemy vessels.  At the time England was at war with France.

Almost Lost in an Atlantic Storm

The voyage ran into bad weather almost immediately and by the second day most of the convicts were very sick.  Noah recorded that on Christmas Day a gale was blowing from the North East and the sea was washing over the decks.  Because the decks required caulking, there was at one point 6 feet of water in the hold.  The captain was sufficiently alarmed to hoist the distress signal, but by 8 in the evening the water level had been reduced to 2 feet through continuous operation of the pumps.

The gale continued for another 3 days with convicts and crew were manning the pumps and “every one thinking at every moment the ship would be swallowed by the foaming ocean which poured down the hatchways”. The convicts were chained in pairs in the hold half full of water in the middle of winter.  The weather moderated on the 28th and the bedding was brought up on deck to dry and most of the convicts were given half a pint of port wine.

Near Mutiny

The same day a convict named Robert Wiltshire but known as “Muckbolt” turned informer and told the Captain that the convicts were planning to take the ship.  Some of the convicts forced two needles through his tongue as punishment.  Others wanted his tongue pulled out but were over-ruled “by them that had some feeling for the sufferings he had already received”.  Some of the convicts had cut chains with the assistance of Seaman Johnson, who provided a chisel, so that they were only single ironed, but this was discovered on 29 December and the offenders given two dozen lashes.  The Captain also cut the rations of the offenders, but the others shared theirs with them.

The mood below decks was still mutinous and Dr Vanderkemp and the other missionaries decided to pay the men a visit, despite being warned by the Captain that it was unsafe to do so.  “Some rebellious spirits intended to bore a hole in the hull and sink her” Vanderkemp wrote, but eventually they “were so won over that lions behaved to the missionaries with the gentleness of lambs, heard their admonitions with respect, their warnings with seriousness, and their consolations with thankfulness”.

Ports of Call – Madeira and Maio

The first port of call was Funchal on the Portuguese island of Madeira on 8 January 1799.  The Hillsborough was anchored off the town, while boats went ashore for supplies of wine.  Already convicts are dying at the rate of about one each day.  They left the same day, crossing the Tropic of Cancer near the Canary Islands at 6 PM on 10 January.  On 16 January one of the convoy was chased by a French privateer.

On 17 January they arrived at the island of Maio, one of the Cape Verde Islands.  They stayed several days gathering provisions, including two wild bulls.  Visiting ships were very important to the island and the Governor of the island “Captain Jack” came to tea and again to dinner on 22 January.  Unfortunately some of the ships crew became drunk while onshore and a fight broke out with the natives, but no serious damage was done.

Some of the convicts bartered clothes and blankets for goats, hogs, nuts and money.  They later came to regret this very much when the ship reached the bottom of Van Diemen’s Land (Tasmania) in the middle of winter.

Crossing the Equator – Water Shortage – Fire in the Galley

They left Maio at 6 PM on 23 January. It was now quite hot being close to the equator and the men were only allowed to spend one and a half hours per day on deck, in two divisions.  Noah wrote “This astonishing hot weather carried off many of our people.  The want of air and proper nourishment threw them into fevers that soon took them off.  Some raving mad”.   On 29 January, the pitch kettle in the galley caught on fire but fortunately it was extinguished.  On 30 January there was a storm and the convicts caught some water which fetched ninepence a quart.  The death rate was accelerating with 30 now dead.  Noah records that the doctor would sometimes “wait an opportunity to steal a little water to quench the thirst of those that whined”.

At 8 AM on 3 February they crossed the Equator and the traditional King Neptune ceremony was performed.  They then proceeded south west and by 2 March they were “Latitude 35 degrees south, but had run so far out of our way that we had 2000 miles to run off longitude to the Cape of Good Hope”.  From there they were able to pick up the “Roaring Forties” to take them to Capetown.

Arrival in Capetown

They arrived in Table Bay at 6 PM on 31 March 1799.  The next day some of the crew went ashore and got drunk and ended up in jail. The Captain was forced to pay five dollars per man to extricate them.  Noah commented on the quality and cheapness of the provisions:

“mutton, beef and pork 2½ pence per pound.  Cheap brandy 1 shilling six pence a bottle.  Wine 7 pence, and the best a shilling… Bumboats brought good three penny loaves, grapes, fish, sausages, tobacco, peas and apples which sold cheap”.

On 3 April they were ordered by the Governor to move to Simon’s Bay, 25 miles south of Capetown because of the poor state of the convicts “having upwards of a hundred ill and some very bad”. They arrived on 13 April and up to this point 44 had died already.

Unloading the Ship - Near Capsize – Death Toll Accelerates

Some of the convicts, those still capable of working, including Noah, were single ironed by the Doctor to allow them to assist with unloading the coal.  The Captain was not pleased and ordered them double ironed again.  Convicts who helped with unloading were given a glass of rum at the end of the day.

By now several convicts were dying each day and the Doctor was onshore full time burying the dead. Each burial cost the ship 3 shillings.

On 30 April fresh breezes sprang up, and because the ship was now unstable from having the coal removed from the hold, one gust caught the sails and almost capsized her. The crew was able to escape to safety, leaving the convicts chained below to perish.  Noah wrote:

“At about midnight a sudden gust struck the ship, not being righted by the vast quantity of coals being out.  Buried us all in the top which caught the wind and layed her gunwale in the water.  This sudden affair frightened the Captain and seamen, so that they all prepared to save themselves by taking to the boats or swimming.  But what must be our feeling in the unhappy situation of being locked and barred in, and not the least prospect but to go down all together.  But it pleased the Almighty to right her by a second gust”.

On 3 May a surgeon Inspector came on board to check conditions.  The next day the Doctor was summoned to Capetown and on the 5th he returned with orders to remove 146 convicts to hospital.  However Noah reports that conditions in the hospital were even worse:

“the hospital… was the most deplorable place I saw; had been a stable for soldiers’ horses, and was now in ruins.  It was paved in stones the same as our stables in England, without a fire place or window”.  The building did not keep the elements out and the men woke up cold and wet.  On 7 May 56 of the healthiest were ordered back on ship.

By 21 May men were dying faster than they could be buried and during the night some bodies awaiting burial were devoured by wolves.

By this time they had been in South Africa almost two months and were preparing to put to sea again.  Noah notes on 28 May that at this time the treatment that they received from the Captain changed markedly.  They were now allowed on deck any time and given as much water as they wanted.  Unfortunately the death toll by this time was 83 men.

On 29 May 1799 they left for Australia.

Crew Pilfering Provisions – Voyage across the Indian Ocean

On 3 June a complaint was made that the cook had been embezzling flour and plums from the convicts’ supplies, but it was ignored by the Captain.  Food was scarce in the colony at that time and these items would have fetched a good price on the black market.  The following day, George Crossley, the convict attorney, suggested that the puddings be weighed before being given to the men.  Noah remarks with satisfaction that “this day we found our plum pudding much bigger and better owing to Mr Crossley”.  Mrs Crossley, who was one of the Captain's passengers, had previously shown kindness to the men by changing their money for them while in South Africa.

The weather was stormy crossing the ocean and again they found themselves manning the pumps to stay afloat.  However they were being pushed along by the Roaring Forties and were making good time.  On 21 June Noah complains about the cold and the shortness of the day on what in England would be the longest day of the year.  Later he realizes that the seasons are the reverse of what they are used to in England.

Around Tasmania

On 26 June in the middle of a hail storm, lightning struck the fore topmast.  A ball of fire burnt the main deck and several men were knocked down.  By this time they were heading for the south of Van Diemen’s Land.  Ironically while the Hillsborough was crossing the Atlantic, explorer George Bass was returning to Sydney with Mathew Flinders, having just found the strait which now bears his name by circumnavigating Van Diemen’s Land.  This changed the maps and saved several days travel for all future voyages.

Between 2 and 4 July they were sailing down the west coast of Tasmania travelling at 8 knots under very heavy seas.  Again the pumps were working every watch and it was taking four men to hold the course at the helm.  At 2 PM on the 4th the sea broke over the rudder, throwing the men from the helm.  One seaman, James McDuel did not release the wheel quickly enough and one of the spokes pierced his chest, killing him instantly.  Another suffered a broken arm and the other two were also badly injured.

It appears that they rounded South West Cape, Tasmania on 8 July 1799, heading into the Pacific Ocean for the home stretch.

Arrival in Sydney Cove

By now the course had changed to north east and they were headed back to a warmer climate, which must have been a relief to those who had bartered their warm clothes for food in the tropics.  On 12 July there was another dangerous incident when some rum caught fire, but again there was no serious damage.  The next day the east coast was sighted, which lifted the spirits of the men considerably.  On 15 July “for the first time our Captain and Mate paid a visit to the hospital, and kindly enquired after the health of the convicts”.  This belated concern must have surprised everyone.

On 21 July George Paddington, the ninety-fifth and final convict to die during the voyage departed this life.

They made good progress up the east coast until 25 July when a gale blew in “tore the spanker (sail) to pieces”.  Then a bolt of lightning hit a cormorant sitting on the topmast.  Two of the seamen were blinded for several hours by the intensity of the flash.  At 6 PM the weather abated and the Captain told the convicts he hoped to make Sydney Cove the next day.

On the morning of 26 July 1799, they sailed into Sydney Cove.  Noah wrote “at seven made sail and turned up the river which is seven miles from the town.  The appearance is wild and uncultivated but it made our hearts glad to think that we should now be released from our unhappy and miserable situation”.  Later in the day “we were now visited by the gentlemen of the town, our prison door set open, and our irons knocked off”.  The next day they were “visited by the gentlemen of the camp, convicts and free people who gave us a hearty welcome to this long and wished for country and many gave us invitation to their habitations when we should come onshore”.


Voyage of the Morley

This is an account of the voyage of the convict ship Morley which transported Abraham Colefax, his wife Martha and 3 children from Sheerness in Kent, England to Sydney.  It was written by Felton Mathew, a passenger, who subsequently took up a position as Assistant Surveyor of Roads and Bridges in the colony. The voyage began on 3 August 1829 and finished on 3 December 1829, lasting 114 days.

Felton Mathew's original text follows——

Original manuscript

Monday 3rd Augt 1829
I embarked at 8 O'clock A.M. on board the "Morley" convict ship for New South Wales, now lying at Sheerness The party on board consisted beside myself of the Captain of the Guard (Capt. Storey) an ensign Mr Tranter, the Surgeon (Mr Lewis) Mrs Storey – 29 Soldiers of different regiments – 200 convicts, 34 seamen, the Captains mate and inferior officers – together with four or five of the soldiers wives amounting on the whole to about 270 souls – The weather throughout the day stormy and tempestuous – with heavy rain at intervals – wind W.S.W. – my first day on board ship has certainly been a most unpropitious one. The variety of noises by which I was kept awake at night and disturbed early in the morning – the disagreable smells the clanking chains of the convicts – with other sights and sounds far from agreable tend to impress me with an idea of the inconveniences to which they who travel by sea must be subject. But these are trifling considerations unworthy a moments attention from one who has an important object in view.

[4 AUG 1829]
Tuesday 4th Augt

Weather still very squally but with less rain. Wind very high from the W. and though only in the river the way the vessel rocks in such a manner as to produce a particularly unpleasant sensation in the stomach of a landsman —

[5 AUG 1829]
Wednesday 5th Aug
t
Tempestuous night and very high winds during the morning but at noon the weather cleared & became warm & pleasant — Wind N.W. went with Mr Tranter on board the .........................[?].120 Gun ship lying in ordinary

[6 AUG 1829]
Thursday 6th Aug
t
Fine mild weather – wind NW – went on shore with Capt Storey visited the dockyard and walked from thence to Queensborough – a dirty miserable borough town about 2 miles from Sheerness. It consists of one long strait street with two or three good houses – and a neat if ancient church. It is a borough & sends two members to parliament. Great distress has been for some time prevalent there owing to a monopoly in the fishing trade, on which the poor inhabitants are solely dependent for support. Many have in consequence died from Want.

[7 AUG 1829]
Friday 7th Aug
t
Fine warm day with light wind from the S.E. – walked in the afternoon to Milstown[?].

[8 AUG 1829]
Saturday 8th Aug
t
At 8 O'clock A.M. weighed anchor and dropped down with the tide – no wind – at noon came to an anchor off the Nore – at 4 P.M. a light breeze springing up from the S.E. again weighed and anchored at ½ past 6 after making about 20 miles in the course of the day. The Reculoers[?] & Margate in sight – fine evening – air cold — wind variable.

"Whiting fishing off Margate, Sunrise" (detail)
JMW Turner, 1822

[9 AUG 1829]
Sunday 9th Aug
t
Weighed anchor at ½ past 3 P.M. with a strong wind frm W.S.W. directly in our teeth. rounded the N Foreland with a fine view of Margate & Ramsgate – at ½ past 12 anchored in the Dawn off Deal near the Ramities[?] Guardship wind blowing hard with damp & mist

[10 AUG 1829]
Monday 10th Aug
t
At anchor off Deal – wind variable – chiefly from W.S.W. heavy rain in morn
g but afternn clear & fine

[11 AUG 1829]
Tuesday 11th Aug
t
At Ό past 5 A.M. weighed with a little light wind from N.W. after doubling the S Foreland it fell calm & continued so throughout the day – at 9 we were opposite Dover and continued in nearly the same position for several hours. Light air from S.E. but we made very little progress & at night were nearing Dungeness. Weather clear & beautiful The scenery along the coast is delightful – we sailed within about 2 miles of Dover and had a fine view of the town which appears neat & pretty. The Castle is a fine building & its situation most commanding. The French coast clearly visible – upwards of 30 sail vessels on our stern rounding the Foreland presented a very pretty appearance

[12 AUG 1829]
Wednesday 12 Aug
t
At 6 A.M. had made but little progress. light wind from S.E. – almost acalm — Weather clear and fine – at 2 P.M. Beachy Head W.N.W. of us – at 4 P.M. a fine breeze from W.S.W. sprang up which carried us rapidly on our course – passed successively Rye Winchelsea & Hastings – at the latter place I could distinctly observe the "lovers Seat," "The Conqueror's Table" and other well known spots

[13 AUG 1829]
Thursday 13th

At 8 A.M. abreast of the Isle of Wight wind W.S.W. making way rapidly – towards night blew very fresh

[14 AUG 1829]
Friday 14th

Wind blowing hard from N.E. sailed in the night 10 knots an hour – Start Point in view – towards even
g lost sight of land entirely – a very boisterous night

[15 AUG 1829]
Saturday 15th

Wind strong from N.E. towards noon moderated a little – in the even
g exchanged colours with a Swedish man of war – Weather fine but cold

[16 AUG 1829]
Sunday 16th

Weather fine & warm – wind S.E. Latitude at noon 47° 22' N nothing can possibly be more monotonous than the scene around us not a solitary bird nor a fish nor any living thing to be seen. I think it must require a well regulated mind to sustain its equanimity during a long voyage by sea. Thrown entirely upon its own resources it must require considerable exertion to resist the encroachments of ennui. I am glad to perceive that some little deference is paid to this day. The morning service is read to the prisoners by the Doctor and to the guard by their officers & all the seamenmake a point of appearing in their best & cleanest clothing

[17 AUG 1829]
Monday 17th

Wind ....................... fresh from S.E. fine day but cold. Latitude at noon 45° 53' N. Barometer 302/10 not a sail in sight nor anything to break the uniformity of the "dark blue" horizon.

[18 AUG 1829]
Tuesday 18th Aug
t
Fine weather but with occasional thick mist – wind fresh from W.N.W. – Longitude at noon 11½ W. Lat. 44° 53' N. – Bar. 30° 1½/10 – making about 6 knots an hour. Sail in sight to the E.S.E. —

[19 AUG 1829]
Wednesday 19th

Thick mists with occasional storms of rain – Wind from W.N.W. Lat. at noon 42° 22' N. Long 11° 10' W. Bar. 30°1½/10 – Therm. 72° rising rapidly though the atmosphere is yet not perceptibly warmer – Brig in sight to the westward – The remark which (I believe) is usually made, of the apparent proximity of the horizon at sea, is certainly correct: a distance of 5 or 6 miles appears to form the boundary: and nothing can possibly be more monotonous. On a fine day the sea certainly presents a variety of colours & has altogether a beautiful appearance:– but it is an object which one soon tires of contemplating –

[20 AUG 1829]
Thursday 20

Weather warm & beautiful with a fine wind from W.N.W. which enables us to make very rapid progress. Lat. at noon 40° 75' N. Long 12° 45' W. Bar. 30 2/10 Therm. 72°. At eleven A.M. a brig in sight to the S. which passed at a distance bearing on as for N. at 3 P.M. an American brig bore down within about ½ a mile of us evidently with the intention of speaking: but our vessel continued her course. The American tacked and sailed away to the N.E. – another one in sight to the N.W. – observed a number of Grampuses[?] sporting on the surface of the water about ½ a mile astern – The first appearance of a fish once we left the channel

[21 AUG 1829]
Friday 21st

Fine clear day – light wind from the N.E. Steering our course due SW before the wind the ship rolling heavily – Lat. 38° 10' N. Long 13° 25' W. Therm. 73° – Bar. 30° 3/10 – two brigs in sight to the westward —

[22 AUG 1829]
Saturday 22nd Aug
t
Weather warm & fine with light wind from N.E. Lat. at noon 36° 32' 17" N. Long 14.56 W. making very little progress – not a sail in sight –

[23 AUG 1829]
Sunday 23rd

Weather very fine & warm – wind light from N.E. Lat. at noon 34° 15' 17" N. Long 15° 46' W. Therm. 74 Bar 30 2½/10 – A solitary gull and a few stormy petrels seen – the former indicating an approach to land – expected that Madeira will be visible tomorrow morning. Some of the sailors observed a flying fish – the first we have yet heard of –

[24 AUG 1829]
Monday 24th

At 9 O'clock A.M. the island of Porto Santo in view bearing S.S.E.Ό E. it presents the appearance of three lofty peaks – two of them connected by a long neck of land & one quite distinct & separate from the other two – Lorenzo Point on the island of Madeira bearing S. & by W. & Tristram Point S.W. At noon West point of Madeira S.W. & by S Lorenzo Point & by E. Ό E. Porto Santo no longer visible – weather fine & warm – a fine breeze from S.E. making about 8 knots an hour. Lat. 33° 13' 12" N. Long 17° 8' W. Therm. 73° Bar. 30°2/10 – The view of Madeira is exceedingly fine & romantic – the bold & rugged outline of it's lofty "cloud capp’d" peaks – some of them apparently clothed with wood – it’s deep ravines and broken cliffs – it's precipitous & richly varied sides studded with here & there a neat little white cottage — The whole of that rich azure or almost purple hue, which we see in some of Claud's pictures but to which English scenery is a stranger – this combined with the brilliant and varied colours of the sea, every wave crowned with foam, forms certainly the most beautiful scene I ever beheld —

[25 AUG 1829]
Tuesday 25th Aug
t
Weather fine and moderately warm with a fresh breeze from E.S.E. making about 7 knots an hour. Lat. at noon 31° 10' 20" N. – Long 19° W. Therm. 76° Bar. 30 2/10 –

[26 AUG 1829]
Wednesday 26th

Fine warm clear weather with a fresh breeze from E.S.E. Lat. at noon 28° 45' 19" N. Long 20° 38' W. Therm. 74° Bar. 30 2/10 – observed a number of flying fish about the ship – they are small and appear of a dusky grey colour on the back and wings – at a short distance they might be mistaken for birds – did you not see them rise out of the sea and disappear in it again –

[27 AUG 1829]
Thursday 27th

Weather fine & warm with light wind from N.E. – Lat. at noon 26° 16' 17" N. Long 21° 45' W. Therm. 75° – Bar. 30 1½/10 – passed a ship to the eastward steering the same course

[28 AUG 1829]
Friday 28th

Fine clear weather – very hot – light wind from N.E. Lat. at noon 24° 8' 0" N. Long 23° 8' 0" W. Therm. 76° – Bar. 30 1½/10 – the ship observed yesterday again in sight to the N.E. and continued so all day – flying fish in abundance.

[29 AUG 1829]
Saturday 29th

Weather very fine, but oppressively hot – wind light from N.E. Lat. at noon 22° 5' 37" N. Long 24° 5' W. Therm. 80° – Bar. 30 2/10 – some amusement was afforded this morning in catching a fish the first we have seen near the vessel with the exception of flying fish – Was said to be a "Kingfish". was about a yard long with a forked tail & very sharp head, armed with a visible row of small but not very sharp teeth when taken out of the water it was finely striped with purple but the brilliance of its colours soon faded & when dead it was of a dusky lead colour: the flesh was flaky like that of the cod but firmer & sweeter & when broiled formed a very nice dish – the weight of it was about 20 lbs —

[30 AUG 1829]
Sunday 30th Aug
t
Fine clear weather & oppressively hot light wind from N.E. – inclining to calm – Lat. at noon 20° 35' 52" N. Long 24° 53' W. Therm. 81° –Bar. 30 7/10. Several small dolphins sporting in the ship's wake – and flying fish by shoals in every direction —

[31 AUG 1829]
Monday 31st

Weather fine and exceptionally hot – wind light from the N.E. and N. – Lat. at noon 19° 12' 40" N. Long 25° 15' W. Therm. 81° Bar. 30 2/10 –

[1 SEP 1829]
Tuesday 1st September

Weather fine and hot. light wind from N.E. Lat 17° 11' 28" N. Long 25° 30' W. Thermometer 81° Bar. 30 1/10 – we are now in the Latitude of the Cape DeVerd Islands and not more than 3 leagues distant but the atmosphere is so thick and hazy on the horizon, that not the least appearance of land is to be seen – – two flying fish were found this morning in the main chains – they were very small in shape much like the mullet. – the colour a bright variegated blue – the wings are beautifully transparent and so delicate that the slightest touch will tear them. I endeavoured to preserve them on paper and pressing them between the leaves of a book. — At 5 O'clock P.M. the mist began to clear off and St Antonio became dimly visible to the eastwards.

[2 SEP 1829]
Wednesday 2nd

Weather very fine & towards noon a fine fresh breeze from E.S.E. – after a night of perfect calm. Lat. at noon 15° 18' 7" N. Long 25° 20' W. Bar. 30 1/10 Therm. 82° St Antonio is quite out of sight, but a swallow flying about the ship for a length of time during the morning indicates that we are no great distance from land –

[3 SEP 1829]
Thursday 3rd

Fine weather with a strong breeze from E.N.E. & considerable swell – Lat. at noon 13° 5' 56" N.— Long 24° 15' W. Therm. 82° Bar. 30 – flying fish in abundance – these poor creatures lead a miserable for the dolphins & bonitas pursue them almost incessantly in the water, and when they betake themselves to the air in the hope of safety, the Tropic bird is generally in waiting to assail them there —

[4 SEP 1829]
Friday Sept 4th

Morning fine with light wind from E.N.E. but soon after noon a heavy squall came on, with thunder and tremendous rain – which lasted untill about 3 P.M. when it fell calm. A squall at sea was a novelty to me:– the noise & confusion that prevail on such occasions would astonish any person who was not accustomed to it. The ship was put right before the wind and we scudded along under double-reefed topsails at about 9 knots an hour. – an observation was taken at noon but owing to the thickness of the horizon, its correctness may be doubted. Lat. 11° 27' 15" N. Long 22° 31' W. Bar. 29 9½/10 – Therm. 82° but it soon fell after the squall to 77°. Sail in sight to the Westward —

[5 SEP 1829]
Saturday 5th

Much rain fell during the night accompanied with a strong breeze and considerable swell. The morning was fine with fresh breeze from S.W. and heavy swell which continued all day and the effects of which I have felt severely. To any person who suffers much from sea-sickness a voyage may truly be designated the very climax of misery – the confinement & want of exercise are bad enough – to be .............. up for hours together & during so long a period in a close cabin with no option but that of endeavouring (with me the attempt is vain) to walk the deck where your feet get entangled with ropes and your hair with sails and spars & the reeling & heaving of the vessel make you stagger to & fro like a drunken man – this is bad enough – the complication of loud noises which prevent your resting night or day – the variety of abominable smells the utter impossibility of keeping on your feet even to dress & undress yourself in your cabin without leaning against the side of it – the sensation of being awake, after you have just coaxed yourself perhaps into a doze, Original manuscriptwith a jerk, when the vessel gives a sudden heave, which almost ejects you from your bed – to say nothing of your crockery, books and everything which is not nailed or tied down rattling about your ears – all these are bad enough of all conscience – but they all dwindle into absolute insignificance before that worst of evils – that demon sea-sickness. I never suffer from ennui because by providing constant employment for my mind I give it no opportunity of exerting its influence & personal disagreables & inconveniences. I am the last to think of – but while every little breeze that blows has such an effect on my bodily health I cannot , asI otherwise should enjoy the voyage a calm brings a temporary cessation of my miseries – but it last not long – Lat. at noon today 10° 19' 46" N. Long 21° 30' W. Bar. 30 Therm. 82 Sail about 3 miles to E. of us supposed to be a whaler & the same which accompanied is from the Downs.

[6 SEP 1829]
Sunday 6th Sept

Weather very fine and hot – wind very light from S.W. inclining to calm – Lat. 10° 2' 13" N. Long 20° 9' W. Bar. 30 1/10 – Therm. 82. A shoal of sperm whales was observed astern of the ship. – They were said to be sleeping on the water, and two or three of them floated very near us:– they appeared to be about 30 feet in length. To our great regret the whaling vessel which was in company with us yesterday was this morning out of sight. – had she been within hail it would have afforded us considerable sport and been a source of great profit to them. One of the mates who has served on board a whaler says that each of the fish would have been worth £200 – A sail has just been discovered to the W. but at too great a distance for us to perceive what she is or in what direction she is bound

[7 SEP 1829]
Monday 7th

Weather cloudy but free from rain and very hot. a fair breeze from N.W. Lat. at noon 8° 22' 10" N. Long 19° 25' W. Bar. 30 Therm. 84° –

[8 SEP 1829]
Tuesday 8th

Much rain has fallen during the night and the day has been rough and squally – with fresh breeze from S.W. it was too cloudy to admit of any observation being taken at noon, but the Lat. by dead reckoning is 7° 13' N. Long 18° 45' W. Bar. 29 9½/10 Therm. 79°. The vessel which became in sight on Sunday is still visible to the N. but at a considerable distance – Scarcely a day passes but some land birds are observed settling on the rigging driven in all probability from the coast of Africa. Today an elegant little creature of the dove species lighted on the main top & continued there until the driven thence by the bustle &confusion of taking in sail & during squalls we have encountered – to finish miserably in the water

[9 SEP 1829]
Wednesday 9th Septr

Weather dull & gloomy but without rain – a steady breeze from S.S.W. Lat by reckoning 6° 43' " N. Long 16° 45' W. Bar. 30° Therm. 80°

[10 SEP 1829]
Thursday 10th

Weather fine with a steady breeze from S.W. — Lat. at noon by observation 6° 0' 18" N. Long 14° 40' W. Bar. 30° – Therm. 80°

[11 SEP 1829]
Friday 11th

Weather tolerably fine and very cool & pleasant Wind S.W. fresh breeze Lat. at noon 5° 11' 8" N. Long 16° 40' W. Bar. 30° – Therm. 80° – the prevalence of south westerly winds for the last eight days is very unfavourable to us, as we do not expect to come in with the S.E. trade winds untill we get within about 2° of the line – and our progress towards it is extremely slow – We lost the north east trade in about 12° N. which is about 2° earlier than usual at this time of year – It appears from a variety of observations that on an average, The N.E. trade wind in the month of Jany is last at about 4° from the line, in Feby at 6° – and so on with a variation of about 2° untill Midsr. from which time it advances again toward the Equator and decreases in the same ratio nearly as in the former part of the year it increased –

[12 SEP 1829]
Saturday 12th

Fine weather & cool – wind still continues fresh from S.W. saw two homeward bound vessels to the westward bearing away before the wind but at too great a distance to speak to them – Lat. by obs. at noon 4° 36' 47" N. Long 18° 40' W. Bar. 30 2/10 – Therm. 80°

[13 SEP 1829]
Sunday 13th Septr

Weather fine & clear with fresh breeze from S.W. Lat. 4° 20' 56 N. Long 17° 34 – Bar. 30 ½/10 – Therm. 80°

[14 SEP 1829]
Monday 14th

Weather very fine with clear and cloudless sky and fresh cool breeze still from S.W. nothing can be more delightful than the present state of the weather. the atmosphere is pure and the breeze cooling so that although the sun is nearly vertical, the heat is by no means unpleasant whilst at a much greater distance from the line it was perfectly exhausting. Lat. at noon 3° 57' 6" N. Long 16° 37 Bar. 30° Therm. 80° –

[15 SEP 1829]
Tuesday 15th

Weather fine & pleasant wind blowing with prosaking[?] pertinacity still from S.W. so that we can make no progress anyway and have no more prospect of crossing the line than we had a fortnight ago. Lat. 3° 40' 56" Long. 17° 24' Bar 30° Therm. 78°

[16 SEP 1829]
Wednesday 16th

Weather cool & pleasant, but cloudy & with rain at intervals. Wind S.S.W. Lat. at noon 2° 49' N. Long 18° 43' W. Bar. 30° Therm. 78° – brig in sight at ½ past 10 A.M. to the N.E. steering to the Westward lost sight of her in about two hours –

[17 SEP 1829]
Thursday 17th

Fine clear weather with fresh breeze from S.E. Lat. at noon 2° N. Long 20° 6' W. Bar. 30° Therm. 78°

[18 SEP 1829]
Friday 18th

The weather continues most beautiful. The sky clear & cloudless – and though we are just under the line the atmosphere is fresh and delightful. it is impossible to imagine a more beautiful climate than we now enjoy. the day is perfectly cool and pleasant and the night neither too warm nor too cold. The wind blows fresh from E.S.E. Lat. 0.45. N. Long 25 Bar. 30 Therm. 78 –

[19 SEP 1829]
Saturday 19th

Weather fine – steady breeze from S.S.E. Lat. 0° 47' 18" S. Long 23° 34' W. Bar. 30° Therm. 77° crossed the line about 4 O'clock A.M. The ceremonies usual on such occasions were dispensed with duly performed during[?] the crossing

[20 SEP 1829]
Sunday 20th September

Fine clear weather with strong breeze from the S.E. Lat. at noon 2° 53' 17" S. Long 25° 11 W. Barom. 30° Therm. 77°—

[21 SEP 1829]
Monday 21st

Weather fine & clear – favourable & steady breeze from the S.E. Lat. at noon 5° 35' 42 S. Long 26° 35' W. Bar. 30° Therm. 78° at ½ past one P.M. exchanged colours with an English Brig, homeward bound supposed either from Rio or Buenos Ayres –

[22 SEP 1829]
Tuesday 22nd

Fine clear weather, with steady wind from S.E. Lat. at noon 8° 33' S. Long 27° 15' W. Bar. 30° – Therm. 79°

[23 SEP 1829]
Wednesday 23rd

Weather warm and rather cloudy with occasional squalls of rain – light wind from E.S.E. Towards evening a tendency to calm. Lat. at noon by observation 11° 9' 14" S. Long 27° 48' W. Bar. 30 1/10 Therm. 77°

[24 SEP 1829]
Thursday 24

Weather fine & warm – wind light & variable from S.S.E. & E.S.E. Lat. at noon by observation 13° 16' 46" S. Long 28° 45' W. Bar. 301/10 – Therm. 75°

[25 SEP 1829]
Friday 25th

Fine clear weather – light wind from E.S.E. inclining to calm. Lat. at noon 15° 13' 26" S. Long 29° 34' W. Bar. 30 1/10 – Therm. 77°.

[26 SEP 1829]
Saturday 26th

Fine weather with light wind from S. Lat at noon 16° 6" 5" S. Long. 30° 45' W. Bar. 30–2/10 Ther. 76°. brig in sight at 5 P.M. bearing to the north eastward —

[27 SEP 1829]
Sunday 27th

Fine weather and light breeze from E. & E.S.E. Lat by obs. 17° 33' 42" S. Long 31° 13' W. Bar. 30 2/10 – Therm. 75. At 6 P.M. a large schooner in sight to the S.E. bearing .............. for N.E.

[28 SEP 1829]
Monday 28

Morning fine with strong breeze from E.N.E. Lat at noon 19° 38' 41" S. Long 3° 42' W. Bar. 30 ½/10 Therm. 75°. Two Cape Pidgeons (Petrels) seen flying above the vessel They are rather larger than the common pidgeon. Spotted black & white on the back & wings, and white on the breast and under the wings.

[29 SEP 1829]
Tuesday 29th September

Weather rather cloudy and warm – light wind from N.E. Lat. at noon 21° 47' 30" S. Long 27° 43' W. Bar. 30 ½/10 Therm. 77. — During dinner today a large bat flew into the cuddy & hovered for a few minutes round the table, but succeeded in escaping before we could secure him. Two immense insects of the moth tribe also have been flying about the ship, one of which I have been fortunate enough to procure:– it is very handsomely marked and very much larger than the largest butterflies or moths we meet with in England. Various conjectures have been offered as to where they could come from – some supposing them to have been on board the vessel ever since she left England – and others imagining them to have flown from the small island of Trinidad which was passed during the night of Monday at a distance of not more than 8 0r 10 leagues:– the latter seems the probable hypothethis particularly as the moth is of a size & species never seen (I believe) in England –

[1 OCT 1829]
Thursday 1st October

Rain fell very heavily and in large quantity during the night with very little wind: towards morning the weather cleared & continuing fine with slight air from N.W. untill about 2 P.M. when a squall of rain came on which was succeeded by a dead calm. Lat. at noon by observ. 24° 19' 41" S. Long 27° 4' W. Bar. 30 2/10 – Therm. 75° — The first albatros was seen this afternoon hovering round the ship. it is a very large bird with white body and the back of the wings a dark brown or chocolate colour at a short distance it bear much resemblance to the Heron, but on closer inspection its head more nearly resembles the gull and it has not the long legs of the Heron – Several dolphins have been playing about the vessel and one of them was harpooned by the sailors when hauled on deck we had the opportunity of observing the beautiful changes of colour it undergoes in dying. They certainly surpass anything I could have imagined. The head and belly, when first taken out of the water, have a greenish gold appearance and the sides and back as bright and variegated purple, brilliantly spotted with crimson & deep blue. The fins and tail of bright cerulean blue: the dorsal fin extending entirely from the head to a few inches of the tail. this fin is erect when in the water and its brilliancy of colour is astonishing. The two pectoral fins are of the same colour & shaped something like the wings of the hawk: the tail is long & forked. The head large and round – the body gradually tapering off from thence to the tail – the mouth is very small for the size of the fish. its length from the nose to the extremity of the tail is 4 feet 8 ins – but to the insertion of the tail only 3 feet 9½ ins – it's weight 33 lbs – it is said to be of a very different species from the dolphin of poetry, this latter being of the porpoise tribe – But Byron's description of it is correct and beautiful –

"Parting day,
Dies like the dolphin whom each pang imbues
With a new colour, as it gasps away
The last still loveliest; till ’tis gone and all is gray,
Childe Harold:

[2 OCT 1829]
Friday 2nd October
The weather today has been dull and heavy, with a fair breeze from N. by E. and a heavy swell setting in from the S.W. which during the last 36 hours has caused the ship to roll most "villainously" Sailors predict that it will be followed by a strong gale from that quarter. The observed Lat today (at noon) 25° 37' 23" S. Long 26° 2' W. Bar. 30 1/10 Therm. 74° and about 2 hours after it dropped 2° and stood at 72° a very perceptible change has taken place in the atmosphere today it has been damp and even cold

[3 OCT 1829]
Saturday 3rd
The wind blew strong during the night from N & NW and has continued all day today with constant and heavy rain this being the first wet day we have had since leaving England. Bar 29 7/10 Therm 72 atmosphere damp & chilly several petrels of different kinds have been seen today; and a bird which from its appearance at some distance I conceived to be the ash coloured Puffin

[4 OCT 1829]
Sunday 4th

The wind which has been blowing hard all day yesterday increased towards night until about midnight & it became a perfect hurricane during which we were obliged for nearly four hours to run before the wind in a direction NNW the deadlights and windows of the lower stern cabins occupied by the soldiers were dashed in by the violence of the waves & the men washed out of their beds. Several sails were torn & injured and different parts of the rigging carried away; but fortunately no material damage was sustained. The Barometer during the night stood at 29 1/10 a gale of wind during the night is the greatest misery to be endured on a voyage for independently of the immense confusion of sounds the variety of noises some of which is alone sufficient to wake the dead, the motion of the vessel effectualy precludes the possibility of sleeping:– every time the vessel is struck by a sea, it is sufficient to pitch you out of your bed and it is as much as you can possibly do with all your care to prevent such a catastrophe, so that not merely are you deprived of sleep, but even rest is impossible and you rise in the morning jaded & unhinged – and more fatigued than if you had been engaged in violent exertion — During the whole night it rained tremendously & the wind blew all around the compass. Towards noon the weather cleared, wind still strong from the S.W. — sailing under close reefed topsails – sea running very heavy. Lat. by obs. 28° 58' 25" S. Long [space] W. Bar. 29½/10 Therm. 64° —

[5 OCT 1829]
Monday 5th

Weather fine and clear with strong breeze from the S.W. and considerable swell. Lat. by observ. 30° 6' 50" S. Long 21° 39' W. Bar. 29 9/10 Therm. 62 atmosphere fresh and very bad. A great variety of birds have been following the ship these last two or three days Cape Pidgeons – stormy Petrels and others whose names I cannot learn, particularly a large bird nearly or quite the size of a goose. its plumage entirely black and a delicate little creature the size of a dove with dunn or fawn coloured wings – blackish head and white underneath ...

[6 OCT 1829]
Tuesday 6th

Weather variable with occasional squalls of rain very strong from S.W. And very heavy sea – Lat. by obs at noon 32° 40' 5" S. Long 18° 43' W. Bar. 30 Therm. 61 air dry and very cold

[7 OCT 1829]
Wednesday 7

Weather clear and fine slight breeze from S.W. with many swells which have now subsided towards night atmosphere very cold. Lat. at noon 34° 24' 9" S. Long 15° 34' W. Bar. 30 2/10 – Therm. 56° large flights of Cape Pidgeons several giant petrels and albatrosses follow in the ship's wake these last few days —

[8 OCT 1829]
Thursday 8th October

Weather clear and cold with occasional squalls of sleet and hail light wind from S.W. and afternoon shifted to S.E. Lat. by obs. 35° 55' 29" S. Long 11° 54' W. Bar. 30 2/10 Therm. 53° At six O'clock P.M. the island of Tristan da Cunha bearing due south about 45 miles, Cape Pidgeons, Albatrosses Giant Petrels, Stormy petrels, ash coloured puffins and other birds in great numbers accompanying the ship – a large whale was observed at some distance to the S.W.

[9 OCT 1829]
Friday 9th

Weather cold & squally in the forenoon but toward the afternoon fine, dry & very cold – wind: wind variable chiefly from S.S.E. Lat. at noon 35° 45' 29" S. Long 11° 10' W. Bar. 30 3/10 Therm. 54° —

[10 OCT 1829]
Saturday 10th

Fine clear cold weather with slight breeze from S.E. at 6 A.M. the island of Tristan da Cunha in sight bearing S.W. Lat. at noon by obs. 37° 1' 38" S. Long 11° 26' W. Bar. 30 6/10 Therm. 55° – at 1½ hours P.M. the extreme points of Tristan da Cunha bore N.W.by N. and N.W. by W. ½ W. The adjoining islands "Inaccessible" W by N and "Nightingale Island" W. by S. ½ N. – at 4 P.M. Tristan da Cunha N. "Inaccessible" W.S.W. and Nightingale W. Ό N. These islands very lofty & have a bold, romantic appearance, particularly "Inaccessible Island" which as its name imports is ringed and surrounded by huge masses of detached rock. its outline is broken into a variety of towering peaks & undulating slopes and its sides torn with chasms by the force of the mountain torrents which in rain storms must be tremendous two small islands or rather insulated masses of rock of great size stand a little to the northern end of the main island. Nightingale Island has also a singular appearance one of its extremities rises into a peak of stupendous height & bearing the form of a cone or sugar loaf.

Tristan da Cunha was nearest to us, being distant about 9 or 10 miles. it's appearance is less romantic, & it's outline is less rugged but it is probably more fertile, as patches of thick brushwood & here & there of lovely greensward were observable. A peak in its centre is said to rise to the height of nearly 9000 feet from the level of the sea but from the whole summit of the Island being enveloped in a dense cloud which hung over the whole day, we were unable to catch a glimpse of it. A shoal of whales was observed close under the Island & birds of numerous different species abound. Seals are said to be plentiful & people are occasionally left on the island for the purpose of catching them. We hoisted our colours and fired several rounds of musketry,. in the hope that if the island were inhabited, we might hold some communication with it but our signals were not noticed in any way.

[11 OCT 1829]
Sunday 11thOct
r
Weather fine, dry, and very cold. At noon the Island of Tristan da Cunha again visible to the N.E. Lat. by obs. 38° 8' 9" S. Long. 12° 3' W. Wind E. by N. Bar. 30 6½/10 Therm. 52

[12 OCT 1829]
Monday 12th

Weather cold with occasional squalls of sleet and strong fresh breeze from E.N.E. at noon Gough's Island in sight bearing S.E. distant 8 or 9 miles —

[13 OCT 1829]
Tuesday 13

Passed Gough's Island last evening about 8 O' clock with strong breeze from the N.E. which has continued throughout today. Weather fine and clear but very cold Lat. by obs. 40° 48' S. Long. 7° 16' W. Bar. 30 5/10 Therm. 54° Immense numbers of the ash coloured Puffin flying about the ship. The Cape Pidgeons have become less numerous

[14 OCT 1829]
Wednesday 14th October

Weather clear and fine during the morning & afternoon – towards evening thick & hazy — strong breeze from N. by E. Lat. by obs. 40° 33' 31" S. Long. 2° 57' W. Bar. 30 3/10 Therm. 52° —

[15 OCT 1829]
Thursday 15th

Early part of the day, weather thick & clouded with fresh wind from W.S.W. in the afternoon the atmosphere shifted to S. Lat. at noon (by obs.) 40° 3' 29 S. Long. 1° 28' E. Bar. 30 3/10 Therm. 50 —

[16 OCT 1829]
Friday 16th

Weather fine and clear wind light and variable from S.E. but during greater part of the day perfectly calm. Lat. at noon by obs. 39 6' 2" S. Long. 4° 28' Bar. 30 6/10 Therm. 54° – The day being so favourable we were induced to try the experiment of lowering a bottle in the water, attached to the deep-sea-line. The usual result, it is well known, is that when the bottle arrives at a certain depth the cork is forced in and the bottle comes up filled with salt water. In the present instance the result was different. The bottle selected was a common wine bottle, covered on the lip & round the edge with a thick coat of sealing wax. Over that was placed a piece of strong close canvas, which was fastened round the neck of the bottle, with tar twine and the whole well covered with another coat of sealing wax. The bottle was then made fast to the deep-sea-line about 3 feet above the lead, the neck of the bottle being upwards, and lowered into the sea, but unfortunately, the vessel just at that time was making a little way through the water, so that it would not sink perpendicularly but dragged out asterne. However when it had sunk about 45 fathoms from the surface, we hauled in the line and the bottle was found to be about one third part filled with water, the cork being perfectly secure & the wax not in the slightest degree cracked or injured.

[17 OCT 1829]
Saturday 17th October

Dull cloudy weather and cold – with strong, steady wind from N.W. Lat. (by obs.) 39° 7' 28" S. Long. 6° 52' E. – Bar. 30 4/10 Therm. 52° —

[18 OCT 1829]
Sunday 18th

Weather fine clear and cold – strong steady wind from S.W. with heavy swell Lat by obs. 39° 0' 2" S. Long. 11° 6' E. Bar. 30' 1/10 Therm. 52°

[19 OCT 1829]
Monday 19th

Weather cloudy but fine: in the early part of the day fresh breeze from S.W. Towards P.M. it veered around to N.W. a very heavy swell all day. Lat. by obs. 38° 45' S. Long. 15° 41' E. Bar. 30 1/10 Therm. 55°. A very large shark passed close to the vessel this afternoon – the only one we have seen for a length of time —

[20 OCT 1829]
Tuesday 20th

Fine warm day:– gentle breeze from N.W. with heavy swell. Lat. by obs. 28° 28' 34" S. Long. 19° E. Bar. 29 9/10 Therm. 62° at noon & at 4 P.M. 66° – soon after 4 O'clock, the sea rose rapidly without much wind or any apparent cause, and continued to run tremendously high for about 3 hours when it gradually subsided. The ship rolled & laboured dreadfully – every sea that struck her washing over her decks & her bulwarks being under water every time she rolled. A large filtering machine broke loose from it's fastenings and was hurled from side to side with immense violence – carrying away both the poop ladders – and everything that came in its way. One poor fellow narrowly escaped being crushed to atoms — his arm was broken and his face much cut. Our captain says that twice at nearly the same spot he has encountered a similarly heavy sea: it has been supposed to arise from some hidden shoal & has indeed just that appearance but none such has ever been discovered.

[2 OCT 1829]
Wednesday 21st

Fine clear warm day – sea smooth & tranquil Wind N.W. Lat. by obs. 39° 15' 25" S. Long. 22° 21' E. Bar. 29 9/10 Therm. 68° —

[22 OCT 1829]
Thursday 22nd October

Weather fine, clear and warm — steady breeze about 6 knots – from N.W. Lat. at noon ,by obs. 39° 23' 52" S. Long. 26° 2' W. Bar. 30° Therm. 68° — The sun set this evening with unusual brilliancy: I have heard much talk of the splendours of southern skies, but, with the exception of one night, I have yet witnessed nothing which is not surpassed by the gorgeousness of our spring and autumn evenings in England. It may be prejudice – it may be that my recollection turns with melancholy fondness to the green hills & fertile, happy vallies of my dear native land and that even the glories of the setting sun are shorn of part of their splendour when deprived of the combination of beauties presented by an English landscape — but to my eye, a sunset at sea is (comparatively I mean) a dreary scene —

[23 OCT 1829]
Friday 23rd

Weather clear and fine – with a fresh & cold wind from S.W. Lat. at noon by obs. 39° 42' 15" S. Long. 29° 45' E. Bar. 30° Therm. 57° — so great an effect is produced in high southern latitudes by south or S. Westerly winds & so rapid is the transition from heat to cold – the Therm. having fallen since last night 11° in a few hours, yesterday was like a fine day in June – today cold as Nov
r — a shoal of white porpoises was observed playing about the ship:– They are, I believe, rather rare in this quarter but are said to abound in the china seas —

[24 OCT 1829]
Saturday 24th

Forenoon clear & cloudy with strong breeze from N.W. Lat. by obs. at noon 39° 27' 37" S. Long. 32°33 ' E. Bar. 29 9½/10 Therm. 56°

[25 OCT 1829]
Sunday 25th October

Wind blew very strong during the night, and was accompanied with heavy rain and much lightning in the morning it moderated a little, but continued squally and cold throughout the day — Wind N.W. the ship rolls and labours terribly Lat. 40° 0 South Long. 36° 31' E. Bar. 29 3/10 Therm. 58°.

[26 OCT 1829]
Monday 26th

Wind blowing very hard all night and tremendous sea with heavy squalls of rain – About half past one the vessel shipped a sea which cleared away the greater part of her larboard bulwark and a great part of her starboard, overthrowing one of the guns and washing completely into the cuddy:– The soldiers berths were half filled with water, and some of it found it's way into the after hold & spoiled nine bags of flour & a cash of sugar. The weather has continued boisterous all day with frequent squalls but the sea is gradually subsiding. Lat. 39° 34' S. Long. 40° 59' E. Wind S.W. Bar. 29 6/10 and at 6 P.M. 30 ½/10 Therm. 54° —

[27 OCT 1829]
Tuesday 27

Dull cloudy weather towards afternoon wet and cold – light wind from S.W. Lat. 39° 41' " S. Long. 44° 36' E. Bar. 30 ½/10 Therm. 52° — A shoal of Black fish made their appearance close alongside the ship — their mode of swimming bears some resemblance to that of the porpoise but they are much larger and altogether different in shape & appearance

[28 OCT 1829]
Wednesday 28th

Weather fine, clear and warm during the day, but the evening has closed in cold & cloudy – steady breeze all day from N.W. & by W. Lat. by obs. 39° 53' 41" South Long. 49° 7' E. Bar. 30 Therm. 58°

[29 OCT 1829]
Thursday 29th

Fine clear day with wind at N.W. till about ½ past 2 P.M. when it blew strong from S.W. clear and cold Lat. 40 12 25 S. Long. 52 50 E. Bar. 29 ½/10 Therm. 58 caught one of the large dark birds called by the sailors the "Cape Petrel"[?] its plumage is entirely of a very dark slate colour the feet quite white with three toes – webbed – with a claw or nail at the extremity of each toe – the beak long – black & curved at the extremity – a beautiful white ring surrounding about 2/3rds of the eye – it measured 6 feet 2 in across the wings & 2' 6" from the tip of the tail to the point of the beak—

[30 OCT 1829]
Friday 30th October

Fine clear weather with fair breeze from S.W. Lat. by obs. 40° 37' 7" S. Long. 58° 22' 33" E. Bar. 29 9/10 Therm. 50° —

[31 OCT 1829]
Saturday 31st October

Dull cloudy weather – strong breeze from N.W. – afternoon rain and wind frm S.W. Lat. (by dead reckoning) 40° 37' S. Long. (by obsrv
n) 62° 35' 5" E. Bar. 29 6/10 Therm. 58° —

[1 NOV 1829]
Sunday 1st November

Fine weather – very cold – fresh breeze from S. & by W. – heavy sea during the early part of the day Lat. at noon (by obs.) 40 47 S. Long. 67° 17' E. Bar. 30° Therm. 52° —

[2 NOV 1829]
Monday 2nd

Fine clear, cold weather – little wind from S.W. Lat. by obs. 40° 27' 39" S. Long. 69° 34' 14" E. Bar. 30 1/10 Therm. 56° —

[3 NOV 1829]
Tuesday 3rd

Weather thick & foggy with small rain during the early part of the day – little or no wind about 3 P.M. a fine breeze from N.E. weather still dark & foggy – Lat. 40° 41' " S. Long. 73° 24' E. Bar. 29 9/10 Therm. 61° — a shoal of whales observed about ½ mile from the ship S.W. frisking their huge bodies about in the most awkward and ungainly gambol.

[4 NOV 1829]
Wednesday 4th

The weather in the morning thick and heavy with much rain – wind from N.W. = in the afternoon the weather cleared up with a fine breeze from S.W. – very cold Lat. by obs. 39° 59 S. Long. 77 39 E. Bar. 29 8/10 Therm. 58°

[5 NOV 1829]
Thursday 5th

Fine clear weather with little wind – almost calm Lat. by obs. 39 29 32 S. Long. 79° 51' E. Bar. 30° Ther. 58°

[6 NOV 1829]
Friday 6th

Weather continues fine clear and warm with very little wind from N by E inclining to calm Lat. by obs. 39° 43' S. Long. 62° 16 E. Bar. 30 1/10 – Therm. 60° Many albatrosses — & "Cape Birds" (as the sailors call them — g Giant Petrel?) follow the vessel but they are very shy and refuse to take the most tempting bait we can offer them. The number of Cape Pidgeons is diminished to ten or a dozen but some of them we hear will follow us to the coast of New Holland

[7 NOV 1829]
Saturday 7th November

Weather fine & clear – but much colder than yesterday — Wind N.E. fine steady breeze Lat. (by obs.) 40° 9' 7" S. Long. 85° 36' 27" East Bar. 29 2½/10 Therm. 57° —

[8 NOV 1829]
Sunday 8th

Weather wet, cloudy & miserable – heavy rain during the whole of the morning with strong wind from N.E. – about noon ceased raining & the wind shifted to N.W. Lat. by observing 40° 47' South Long. 90° 4' East Bar. 29 5½/10 Therm. 58° —

[9 NOV 1829]
Monday 9th

Weather fine and clear — but very cold – wind variable – about noon from W.S.W. Lat. by obs. 40° 25' 35" S. Long. 93° 56' E. Bar. 30 Therm. 56° –

[10 NOV 1829]
Tuesday 10th

Fine clear weather – and much warmer – light wind from N.W. Lat. by obs. at noon 40° 27' 34" S. Long. 91° 20' 50" E. Bar. 30 3/10 Therm. 60°. Just after breakfast this morning an immense shoal of black fish and porpoises appeared round the ship — we approached quite close and many of them passed under the vessel – The black fish are very large and have a very uncouth appearance they have a very large spot of white behind the dorsal fin – The porpoises had white snouts, bellies & tails – the back being black – the shoal was so numerous that the sea for a considerable distance round the ship was quite alive with them —

[11 NOV 1829]
Wednesday 11th

Weather fine clear and warm with light wind from N.N.E. – inclining to calm – Lat. at noon (by obs.) 40° 36' 46" S. Long. 99° 25'7" East Bar. 30 5/10 Therm. 60° A shoal of sperm whales appeared floating round the ship after noon; one of them approached very close and was considered to be more than 60 feet in length –

[12 NOV 1829]
Thursday 12th

Weather fine but in the morning cloudy – quite calm about 2 p.m. light wind from N.E. Lat. at noon [space] S. Long. [space] E. Bar. 30 5/10 Therm. 58° several whales seen floating at a short distance from the ship—

[13 NOV 1829]
Friday 13th November

Fine weather with light and variable winds chiefly E.N.E. air very cold – Lat. at noon (by obs.) 41° 40' S. Long. [space] E. Bar. 30 4/10 Therm. 57° numerous masses of seaweed have been observed for some days past

[14 NOV 1829]
Saturday 14

Weather fine with steady breeze from E.N.E. — Lat. at noon (by obs.) 42 46 40 S. Long. 104° 6' East Bar. 2/10 Therm. 55° —

[15 NOV 1829]
Sunday 15

During the early part of the morning much rain fell – with little wind:– about noon weather cleared a little and wind shifted to S.W. – atmosphere all day damp and cold. Lat. by obs. 42° 43' 44" S. Long. by reckoning 107° 29' E. Bar. 30 ½/10 Therm. 56° — saw several large whales close to the ship—

[16 NOV 1829]
Monday 16

Weather clear and fine but extremely cold – steady breeze from S.W. Lat. at noon (by obs.) 42° 5' 14" S. Long. 111° 6' 0" E. Bar. 29 9/10 Therm. 55° — Two new birds of a different description from any we have yet seen have made their appearance this afternoon They are about the size of a duck – body black back of the wings black & white speckled – in "make" they much resemble the Pintado or Cape Pidgeon –

[17 NOV 1829]
Tuesday 17th

The weather during the whole night was very squally wind blowing very hard from S.W. which has continued all day with very heavy squalls & rain Lat. at noon (by obs.) 41° 32' 25' S. Long. 119° 6' 15" E. Bar. 29 3½/10 Ther. 58° — more whales were seen close to the ship both last evening & this morning

[19 NOV 1829]
Thursday 19

Weather cold & squally wind S.W. Lat. at noon (by obs.) 41° 13' S. Long. 123° 45' E. Bar. 30 Therm. 56

[20 NOV 1829]
Friday 20

Weather milder but squalls with fine fresh breeze from W.N.W. Lat. at noon by obs. 41° 11' 22" S. Long. 127° 28' W. Bar. 29 9/10 Therm. 62. Another very large sperm whale came close alongside the vessel this morning & two more in the evening.

[21 NOV 1829]
Saturday 21st Nov
r
Weather fine but very cold in the morning – afternoon dull & squally. Wind W.S.W. Lat. by obs. 40° 53' S. Long. 137° 31' E. Bar. 29 8½/10 Therm. 55° two more whales came alongside this morning

[22 NOV 1829]
Sunday 22nd

Wet & squally during the night, but towards morn
g the weather cleared and continued beautifully fine during the day. Steady breeze from S.W. Lat. at noon (by obs.) 40° 12' 11" S. Long. 135° 35' E. Bar. 29 9/10 Thermometer 52°

[23 NOV 1829]
Monday 23rd

Weather dull & gloomy with occasional squalls fine fresh breeze fro W. Lat. at noon (by obs.) 39° 53' 41" S. Long. 139° 16' 47" E. Bar. 29 8/10 Therm. 58

[24 NOV 1829]
Tuesday 24th

Weather variable & squally – wind W.S.W. Lat. at noon 39° 21' 14" S. Long. 143° 16' 50" E. Bar. 29 6/10 Ther. 58° — at 4 P.M. Cape Otway in sight bearing E. by N. —

[25 NOV 1829]
Wednesday 25th

Much rain has fallen during the night and the morning dull & gloomy with occasional rain & no wind. at 9 A.M. sounded & found 37° fathoms – a bottom of sand and shells — at 10 A.M. a sail in sight W.S.W. being the first we have seen since the 16th Sep
r. Threw a line out astern & caught a fine fish weighing about 16 pounds – name unknown At 4 P.M. Wilson's Promontory bearing E.N.E. Rock Rotunda E. by N. Wind S.S.E. Lat. (by obs.) 39° 19' 13" S. Long. 146° 2' 0" E. Bar. 29 4½/10 Therm. 56°

[26 NOV 1829]
Thursday 26th

The weather during last night was very unfavourable very dark with exceptionally heavy rain. About midnight we passed close under the lee of Sir Roger Curtis's Groupe so close as to discerne very plainly the broken water off the shore: at 4 in the morn
g Kent's Groupe, Aherne's Groupe, Sir R Curtis's Ragged Island & others where all within sight nothing to be seen of the ship we saw yesterday – At 11 A.M. lost sight of all the Islands at 3 P.M. a heavy squall from N.W. Lat. at noon by obs. 38° 54' 48" S. Long. 148° 58' 20 E. Wind at W. Bar. 29 3/10 Therm. 54

[27 NOV 1829]
Friday 27th Nov
r
At 5 this morning Cape Howe in sight – a large barque bearing away to the West and shortly after a schooner steering the same course. Weather clear warm and beautiful with strong breeze from N.W. – at 4 P.M. close in with the land – quite calm & strong current setting to the southward Lat [space] S. Long. [space] E. Bar 6/10 Therm. 65° –

[28 NOV 1829]
Saturday 28th Nov
r
Weather fine and warm. – very light wind – almost calm – afternoon a fresh breeze from N.E. Mount Dromedary bearing N.W. Bar. 29 9/10 Ther. 70°

[29 NOV 1829]
Sunday 29th

Weather fine & warm – with light baffling winds – almost calm:– at day break off Point Upright – a large ship to leeward about ½ a mile – I supposed to be the same we saw in Bass's Strait. At noon off Hat Hill & Red Point. The scenery along the coast is romantic & beautiful in the extreme – rising into wild & picturesque peaks clothed with wood – and interspersed with occasional patches of pasture the shore in parts is low & sandy:– many houses are dotted about and in front of one of them I could clearly distinguish a herd of cattle pasturing – a delightful object to the eye after a four months voyage – Bar. 30 1/10 – Ther. 72 –

[30 NOV 1829]
Monday 30th

weather thick & hazy with heavy rain – no wind in the forenoon the ship we saw yesterday bore up very near & signalled us but our people being unaccustomed to the use of signals could make nothing of them About 3 P.M. a heavy gale came on from N.E. bearing us fast away to the leeward again – Hat Hill once more in view

[1 DEC 1829]
Tuesday Dec
r1st
Heavy squalls during the night accompanied with tremendous rain & thunder & lightning, which continued untill about 10 A.M. when it cleared & became very fine. At 2 P.M. another tremendous squall of rain thunder & lightning which lasted about an hour when it again cleared & a steady breeze set in from N.E. at 4 P.M. a ship & a brig in sight to leeward, standing in to land – Lat. 37 20 S. Long. 152 18 E. Bar. 29 5/10 Therm. 72

[2 DEC 1829]
Wednesday 2nd Dec
r
Weather fine & clear – light baffling winds in the early part of the day – about noon a steady breeze from NNW. The currents & foul winds combined have driven us down to the same situation we were in on Sunday, Hat Hill being abreast of us bearing W. At 4PM a fine little schooner passed close to us, apparently from Sydney to Van Dieman's Land – Bar 29
7/10. Them 72° – At 8 P.M. abreast of Botany Bay: at ½ past 11P.M. entered between the heads of Port Jackson :– After firing muskets for a long time and hoisting lanterns at the mast head & peaks we succeeded in procuring a pilot at ½ past 12. The wind having dropped entirely we were carried slowly into the Cove by the tide and on the morning of

[3 DEC 1829]
Thursday 3rd Dec
r
at ½ past 6AM our anchor dropped in Neutral Bay about 2 miles from the town of Sydney. Thus terminates a journal of 114 days spent at sea; and although perhaps no voyage was ever more monotonous or less varied by events of any kind, yet never perhaps did time pass more swiftly notwithstanding all inconveniences and disagreables; and we have the rare merit (for such it truly is) of being enabled to say that although previously perfect strangers to each other, during the whole of a tedious confinement which has a singular effect in irritating the mind of men & making them testy and tenacious – not an angry word passed between us, but everything went on as smoothly as could possibly be wished. In conclusion I have only to state my earlier opinion, that the worst that was ever written or said of the miseries of a long voyage, falls far short of the reality; and he who is disconcerted with home, should confine himself for 4 months on board ship, & I will answer for his returning perfectly cured

Original manuscript held by National Library of Australia
Microfilm copy of original donated to Gosford City Library Local Studies Collection, June 1998
Transcription by Bruce Jones; published to the internet June 1998

Appendix 4 - Obituaries

Ref: Sydney Morning Herald, November 11,1847

Obituary of William Dean

An Old Colonist - The funeral of the late Mr William Dean, of the Western Road,
took place yesterday. Mr Dean, better known by the name of, from his extreme
corpulency "Lumpy Dean" was a very old colonists, having arrived here in the year
1799. He, until within a very few years past, kept a public house on the Western
road, and in which line he was a well-known and equally respected as the late John
Ireland on the Sydney one. His anecdotes of the primeval days of the Colony were
both instructive and entertaining, and his details of then considered great
exploratory expeditions, when settlers went ten miles into the bush from their
location in order to find cattle runs, were rich in their extreme, his conduct and
manners during nearly half a centurys sojourn in the colony procured him that
esteem and respect which a numerous attendance at the last obsequies yesterday
witness. Mr Dean was 78 years of age.
 

Obituary - Moruya Examiner 19 March 1887: Death of Mrs Ann Constable

We have to record the decease of Mrs Ann Constable, a resident of the district for the last 33 years, at her daughter’s residence on Monday morning last in her 79th year. The remains were followed to her last resting place in the CE portion of Moruya cemetery by a large cortege of family and friends.

Obituary - Moruya Examiner 17 July 1920: Mr Charles Colefax

Once again we are called upon to chronicle the death of one of our old and highly respected residents. This time it is Mr Charles Colefax, who passed peacefully over the great divide early on Sunday morning at the age of 75 years. Mr Colefax, who was a native of Maitland, came to Moruya when a boy and has resided here ever since. He followed farming pursuits, and being industrious and a man of the strictest integrity, he was very successful in the industry, amassing a comfortable income to live on in his declining days. He was greatly esteemed throughout the district, being of a quite reserved disposition, he lived for his wife and family only. The funeral took place on Tuesday, the body being taken first to the Church of England, where an impressive service was held by the Rev G.A. Sanders. Deceased leaves a widow (a sister of Mr W. Constable of Gundary and Mrs R. Little of Moruya), and a grown up family of seven sons and four daughters.

Obituary - Moruya Examiner 9 August 1941: Mrs Charles Colefax

 One by one our splendid pioneers are passing over the ‘great divide'. We regret to record the demise of Mrs Charles Colefax at the grand age of 94 years, at Earlwood on Sunday last. The late Mrs Colefax was a person who enjoyed robust health during most of her life, having brought up a family of 11 children, but about four years ago the old lady suffered a stroke which left her semi-paralyzed Several weeks ago an attack of bronchitis affected her health and later she succumbed to pneumonia Deceased was the youngest of a large family and the last remaining member of that family. Her husband predeceased her in 1920. At the tender age of seven years the late Mrs Colefax arrived in Australia with her parents, the late Mr and Mrs John Oldfield Constable who came out from the Old Country in a small sailing ship, the journey taking over three months. When they arrived at Sydney, the family transferred to a smaller craft and made the trip to the South Coast, arriving at Broulee. The family settled down in the district and daughter Harriett attended the old school at Yarragee. Later her father took over the ‘Queens Head Hotel’, then situated on the southern bank of the Moruya River, on the site where Mrs H. Flynn’s residence now stands. Deceased, who had a very retentive memory, used to relate stirring stories of the gold rush days in Moruya when the miners from Nerrigundah and Mogo would come into town from the diggings for provisions and empty their bags of gold on the bar counter. She would often speak of the hundreds of ‘natives’ who camped along the hill where the Dairy Factory now stands. Her father took up farming pursuits on the Kiora Estate. About this time Miss Harriett Constable married Mr Charles Colefax and after settling down at Newstead, where Mr William Colefax of Gundary was born, the family took up a dairying property at ‘Cooboora’ near Bergalia where the rest of the family was born. The late Mrs Colefax lived in this district until a few years after the death of her husband when she took up residence in several Sydney suburbs, finally making her home at Earlwood where she lived in retirement. She did not worry herself about public affairs, but this did not prevent her from being a good citizen, and she devoted her time to household affairs and her family. This grand old lady is survived by the following family: - Charles, Rowley, Bertie, Harold, Fred and William. One son John, is deceased. Daughters are Amelia, Mrs Evangeline Chapman of Bondi, Mrs Mary Jane McIntosh of Moss Vale, and Mrs Florrie Colefax of Taralga. All members of the family came to Moruya for the funeral and this was the first occasion that they have all been together for something like 40 years. The funeral took place to the CE cemetery on Tuesday last, Rev Wheeler officiating.

 

From Goulburn Post during week starting Monday 7 April 1919.

OBITUARY of William Wilson

The death took place at his. late residence "Silverdale", Sloane Street at twenty minutes to six on Monday afternoon, of Mr. William Wilson, a retired railway employee from an internal complaint in his 71st year. He had been ill for about seven weeks and was confined to his bed for about a week. The late  Mr. Wilson was a native of Durham, England and came to Australia in 1885. On arrival he entered the service of the Railway Commissioners and after some years’ service in the metropolis and at various country towns, was appointed to Goulburn where he remained up to the time of his retirement five years ago. He was an excellent mechanic, a genial companion, and a well informed man. He was also a great lover of music, and had been a member and one of the most regular attendants at meetings of the Leader Choral Society, in which his services were greatly appreciated. His death was announced to the members at Monday night’s meeting when a motion of sympathy was passed in silence and the meeting adjourned. He is survived by a widow, seven daughters and five sons. The funeral took place yesterday afternoon, the remains being interred in the Church of England portion of the general cemetery. The cortege was preceded by members of the City Band, the 5th Battalion Band, and of the Light. Horse Band, of which four of the deceased’s sons are members. Amongst others present were several members of the Leader Choral Society. Four comrades from the Railway Department acted as pall-bearers; members of the service also marching in front of the hearse. The bands played “The Dead March in Saul” en route to the cemetery and on arrival there. The service was conducted by the Rev. S. Broadfoot, and at the conclusion the Leader Society sang “The Long Day Closes”. Included among the wreaths were one each from the Leader Society the Railway Loco. Department, the A.L.H. Band, and the Typographical Society.

 

From Commonwealth War Graves Commission

Description of The Battle of Fromelles

On the morning of 19 July 1916, after a preliminary bombardment, the 5th Australian and 61st (South Midland) Divisions undertook what is officially known as the Attack at Fromelles. The 61st Division attack failed in the end, with the loss of over 1,000 officers and men out of 3,410 who took part in it. The Australian left and centre reached the German trenches and held their second line during the day and night, but the right was held off by a fierce machine-gun barrage and only reached the front line in isolated groups. The action was broken off on the morning of 20 July, after the 5th Australian Division had lost over 5,000 officers and men. It was the first serious engagement of the Australian forces in France, and the only one to achieve no success. V.C. Corner Cemetery was made after the Armistice. It contains the graves of over 400 Australian soldiers who died in the Attack at Fromelles and whose bodies were found on the battlefield, but not a single body could be identified. It was therefore decided not to mark the individual graves, but to record on a screen wall the names of all the Australian soldiers who were killed in the engagement and whose graves were not known. The memorial, designed by Sir Herbert Baker, commemorates almost 1,300 Australian casualties.


Appendix 5 - Family Tree

Ancestors of Jack William Callaghan


Ancestors of Jean Ellen Blomfield


Appendix 6 - Genealogist Reports

Geoffrey Kelly B.A. (HONS) A.L.A. - Historical Research Consultant

Mynholme, Buxton Road, Frettenham, Norwich NR12 7NG, Telephone Norwich 989646.

 

2nd July 1994

 

14 Lodge Lane,

Saughall,

Chester,

CH1 6DT

 

Dear Mrs Manley,

 

Thank you for your letter with enclosures which I received yesterday. Please find enclosed my invoice, which acts as your receipt for the fee which you advanced me.

 

I am glad to be able to tell you that I found the family concerned at a locality called Cavick in Suton in the Parish of Wymondham in the Census of March 1851. It was listed as follows, although you will note that the eldest son John given in the lists you sent me, was not with his family then, moreover, I did not find him anywhere else in Wymondham.

 

John Constable: head, married, 44, thatcher, born Wymondham.

Ann Constable: wife, married, 43, weaver, born Wymondham.

Robert Constable: son, unmarried, 18, born Wymondham.

Hannah Constable: daughter, unmarried, 16, born Wymondham.

William Constable: son, 14, born Wymondham.

Charles Constable: son, 12, agricultural labourer, born Wymondham.

Anne Constable: daughter, 9, born Wymondham.

George Constable: son, 7, agricultural labourer, born Wymondham.

James Constable: son, 5, born Wymondham.

Harriet Constable: daughter, 3, born Wymondham.

 

I can confirm that Ann the - mother’s name was given thus and not as Anne. It seems odd that of the boys just Charles and George were described as agricultural labourers, but that is what the enumerator recorded. I will check the immigration papers if I may. James Brown's wife's name could be as you suggest, or else Rose. Please let me know if you would like the Wymondham parish registers checked; it might also be worth checking the 1841 Census, especially for the parents of John and Ann(e).

 

Yours sincerely,

Geoffrey Kelly.

 

Geoffrey Kelly B.A. (HONS) A.L.A. - Historical Research Consultant

Mynholme, Buxton Road, Frettenham, Norwich NR12 7NG, Telephone Norwich 989646.

 

10th July 1994

 

14 Lodge Lane,

Saughall,

Chester,

CH1 6DT

 

Dear Mrs Manley,

 

Thank you for your most recent letter, received the day before yesterday together with further Postal Orders for £30 which I accept with thanks in respect of the further research presented here. Incidentally I am glad to have the further details of the Tantivy to keep on file.

 

John Constable, who stated in 1854 that his parents (both then dead) were named John and Hannah, was, I have to report, born at Wymondham on 4th August 1806 and baptized there two days later, the ’natural’- that is illegitimate - son of Hannah Constable; moreover, at his baptism he was given the second Christian name of Oldfield (which he did not own to subsequently), that presumably the surname of his father. I did not otherwise, find a likely John Oldfield in the Wymondham parish registers, although others with this surname occurred there about the period in question. Young John's mother did not marry his father; she actually married Robert Doughty, both single of the parish by banns on 22nd November 1809 at Wymondham, after which I did not trace that couple further in the parish records.

 

In the 1841 Census, John Constable and family were given at an address called Folly in that part of Wymondham parish called Downham, thus:

John Constable: 30, thatcher, yes (i.e. born in the County of Norfolk).

Ann Constable: 30, yes.

John Constable: 12, yes.

Robert Constable: 9, yes.

Hannah Constable: 7, yes.

William Constable: 4, yes.

Charles Constable: 2, yes.

 

Unfortunately the 1841 Census is less detailed than subsequent ones; it only indicates whether or not the person being enumerated was born in the county concerned or not, gives ages of those of 15 and upward in five-yearly steps (although even the later Censuses were not always accurate re ages), and does not give relationships within a household, although can usually be inferred (as with the family under discussion where they are actually known).

 

John and Ann’s marriage appeared in the Wymondham registers as follows: John Constable (who signed) married Ann Browne (who marked X) by banns on 31st January 1828, both single of the parish, witnesses (note significance) Robert Oldfield (who signed) and Emily Oldfield (who marked X). In 1854 Anne Constable claimed that her parents’ names were James and Rose (Kate?) Brown, and that her father then resided in Wymondham - I did not find either of them there in 1841 or 1851, but can give you their birth/baptism from the registers of this parish: Ann, daughter of James and Rosamond (nee Brewster) Brown born 3rd February 1809 and baptized nine days later. I did not find her parents marriage here; however, it appears that her mother took to using a shortened form of her Christian name.

 

Incidentally, upon re-checking the 1851 Census I had a fresh look at details given for John and Ann Constable’s household as I reported on 2nd July last: I was indeed correct in having reported that the enumerator, who had a firm, clear hand, gave all the children as having been born at Wymondham; however I failed to note that a subsequent untidy hand had written in the margin ‘Norwich’ as the birthplace of James (as given on the emigration papers). Perhaps this addition was made as a consequence of the details supplied to the emigration by John in 1854: I apologise for not having spotted it initially.

 

I found details of all but the two youngest of John and Ann’s children including a son George who died – in Wymondham registers as follows:

John: baptized 1st July 1828.

George: baptized 6th May 1830 and buried 10th September 1840, aged 10.

Robert: born 6th June 1832 and baptized 28th May 1837.

Hannah: born 14th October 1834 and. baptized (also) 28th May 1837.

William: born 17th December 1836 and baptized 20th Apri1 1837.

Charles: born 31st January 1838 and baptized 14th January 1844.

Anne: born 29th June 1843 and baptized the following 23rd July.

George: born 17th January 1841 (which confirms that his age was given incorrectly on the 1851 Census) and baptized (also) 14th January 1844.

 

The Constables for some reason did not have their children baptized in age order consistently!

 

Anyhow, I do hope that you will be happy with the fresh information which I have presented here.

 

Yours sincerely,

Geoffrey Kelly.

Geoffrey Kelly B.A. (HONS) A.L.A. - Historical Research Consultant

Mynholme, Buxton Road, Frettenham, Norwich NR12 7NG, Telephone Norwich 989646.

24th July 1994

 

Mrs Gladys Manley,

14 Lodge Lane,

Saughall,

Chester,

CH1 6DT

 

Dear Mrs Manley,

 

Thank you for your further instructions, together with further remittance of £30 for which my enclosed invoice acts as your receipt. In my last letter I mentioned that Ann Constable was the daughter of James and Rosamond (nee Brewster) Brown; this Brown line was the only one I found I could make progress with, but you will be glad to hear that I took it back to all four of  James’s grandparents.

 

James Brown’s paternal grandparents were John Brown and his wife Elizabeth - her maiden name and where and when they married I did not discover. They lived in the parish of St Peter Mancroft in Norwich, where they had the following children:

Susanna baptized 10th January and buried 29th November 1738.

Susanna: baptized 25th May 1739.

Thomas: baptized 20th September 1740 and buried 12th December 1742.

Charles: baptised 13th and buried 23rd. April 1742.

Thomas: baptized 12th February 1744.

Samuel: baptized 15th September 1746, your ancestor of whom more shortly.

James: baptized 3rd July 1748.

William: baptized 4th February 1750.

 

I did not discover where and when John and Elizabeth, parents of the above, died. Their son Samuel was described as single when he married Mary Rogers widow by banns at St Michael at Plea, Norwich, on 20th July 1772,  both then of that parish, the bride having to mark X, and with witnesses John Brown and J. Harvey. Of Mary’s background, more in due course. Samuel and Mary moved to the parish of St John de Sepulchre, Norwich, where they had the following children:

Phyllis: baptized 20th and buried 27th September 1772.

Maria: baptized 29th October 1775.

James: baptized 12th March 1780, your ancestor of whom more shortly.

Phyllis: baptized 17th August 1783.

 

I did not discover where and when Samuel and Mary, parents of the above, died. Their son James married Rose - i.e she did not then call herself Rosamond – Brewster by banns at St John de Sepulchre on 4th June 1798, both single of the parish and having to mark X, and with witnesses (who also marked X) Mary Wells and. Robert  By(    ) - rest of surname illegible. I did not find any earlier Brewsters in St John de Sepulchre, and did not discover Rose/Rosamond’s parents anywhere. James and Rose (as we may as well call her, although she was named. in the Wymondham registers Rosamond) did not have any children at St John de Sepulchre in Norwich; however it is likely that they settled elsewhere prior to moving to Wymondham where (as previously reported) their daughter Ann was born 3rd February 1809. Indeed, I can now say that they had three more children at Wymondham: James, born 9th May 1811; Isaac baptized. 9th April 1814; and Harriet baptized 21st Ju1y 1816 - in respect of the last two children, the family were said to have been of that part of Wymondham known as Suton while the father’s occupation was given as labourer.

 

On to the background of Samuel Brown’s wife Mary. She was the daughter of Samuel and Ann King, was born at St Michael at Plea, Norwich, on 10th May 1745 and baptized there twelve days later. Samuel and Ann - where and when they married and her maiden name I did not discover - also had these children at St Michael at Plea: John, born 26th May 1741, baptized eight days later, and. buried 29th April 1742; John, born l2th and baptized 20th February 1743; Peter, born 19th September and. baptized 4th October 1747; and Phillis, born 17th and baptized 3lst March 1751. I did not discover when and where Samuel and Ann the parents died. Their daughter Mary, your forebear, first married Joseph Rogers by banns at St Michael at Plea on 21st November 1765, both single, of the parish and with Mary marking X, witnesses Isaac Hayward and Samuel King - presumably the father - who marked X. The St Michael at Plea registers record the following children of Joseph and. Mary: Francis: born 21st February and baptised 9th March 1766; and. Elizabeth – no birthdate given - baptized 7th December 1766. Given those dates, I can only assume that Elizabeth was a twin of Francis and that her baptism was delayed for some reason. I did not find the burial of Joseph Rogers at St Michael at Plea.


Appendix 7 - Published Articles

 

Taken from “Pictorial History Blacktown District” by Alan Sharpe

 

The Legend of

‘Lumpy’ Dean

 

He was a huge man with a huge sense of humour and the ability to laugh at himself but it was no laughing matter for youthful William Dean when he was sentenced to death at the Old Bailey. He was 16 and employed as a servant at a house in Cavendish Square, London, when he found a £20 note in his master’s jacket and put it in his own pocket. Instead of hanging he was transported to New South Wales which turned out to be the best thing that ever happened to him.

 

After spending several years on the hated floating hulks in London he arrived at Port Jackson aboard the hell-ship Hillsborough in 1799, aged 23. Twelve years later he received a ticket-of-leave and was self-employed as a tanner.

 

Elizabeth Hollingsworth, transported for stealing two £1 notes from her employer, was assigned to him. The couple formed a relationship and married at St John’s Church of England, Parramatta on Christmas Day 1806. They already had one child, the first of eight with another on the way.

 

In 1817 William Dean received two grants from Governor Macquarie. One was of a 100 acres, south of the Western Road and west of Eastern Creek. The other was of 50 acres, north of the Western Road and west of Eastern Creek. He was later given a further 50 acres in the area.

 

In 1820 he was living on the Western Road near the turnpike almost 10 miles from Parramatta. By this time his enormous bulk earned him the nickname of ‘Lumpy’ Dean but in spite of his size he was energetic and enterprising and had built a home for his wife and seven children with extensions for an inn. He also grew wheat and raised cattle.

 

The role of Mine Host of The Bush Inn suited him admirably and customers were drawn by his jovial personality. He later changed the name to The Corporation Inn a facetious reference to his girth. The inn was a seven hour journey by coach from Sydney and travellers often stayed over to enjoy the warmth and hospitality. When the Western Road was extended, traffic increased and so did the family fortune. The 1828 census shows William Dean as the owner of 220 acres with 100 cattle and eight horses.

 

‘Lumpy’ Dean was 78 when he died, a wealthy man and a generous advocate for the education of the poor. Hundreds turned up for his funeral. In spite of his bulk it is said he could still dance the Sailor’s Hornpipe as good as anyone half his age.

 

The family home, Hollingsworth House on the Western Road, built by convicts in 1817 was occupied by the Learmonth family, descendants of William and Elizabeth Dean, when it was acquired by the Department of Main Roads and demolished in 1960 for the construction of the Great Western Highway.

A few items associated with ‘Lumpy’ Dean remain today, in particular a giant cedar chair especially made to accommodate his larger-than-life size and personality. Today William ‘Lumpy Dean is remembered in the suburb of Dean Park.

 

Extract from A History of Prospect - Notes on the Original Grantees (Blacktown Reference Library)

WILLIAM DEANE (1777 - 1847) was pioneer settler of Eastern Creek, the most westerly part of the Parish. He was born in England on November 8th 1777.

He married Elizabeth Hollingsworth (born 1781, died February 1st 1839) after he arrived in the Colony on the “Hillsborough”, in 1799. He received his grant of 50 acres in 1799.

Deane, who had other grants on the western side of the Creek and, on land near the Presbyterian Church at Rooty Hill, grew grain, which he had milled into flour at Parramatta.

This flour was exported to India, and it is from this fact that Rooty Hill is said to have derived its name. The word “Roti” was the name written on the bags of flour, and is an Indian word meaning “bread” or “flour’.

He was affectionately known as “Lumpy’ Deane and, as popular host of the Corporation Inn, was a legend in his own time. He was a man of mammoth proportions, being over six feet tall and weighing 22 stone. That he was a man of humour, was evidenced by the jest against himself in the naming of his Inn.

To this day, there is tangible evidence of his bulk in the size of his chair, at present owned by Mr. Woods, of Eastern Creek. No doubt its excellent state of preservation is due to the fact that it is so large as to have remained unused all this time.

His descendants still occupy the Eastern Creek area. These include the Walkers, Woods, Pikes, Watts and Learmonth families.

His daughter, Sarah Deane, was born on March 1st 1810, and died October 18th 1875. She married Charles Beasley, and their daughter, Susannah Jane was born at “Hollingsworth” on March 17th 1849 (and died in 1917). This old home was demolished in 1961, to make way for a deviation of The Western Highway, and all that remains are two pines which stood close to an old well.

Susannah Beasley married Joseph Learmonth on September 15th 1890, and lived there until the home was demolished.

William Deane died November 8th 1847, exactly 70 years of age.

Sarah Deane’s sister, Elizabeth, married John Warby at Prospect; he became the Government Herdsman at the newly discovered Cowpastures.

 

Article printed in The SOUTHERN STAR Wednesday May 9 1991.

 

THE CONSTABLES OF MORUYA

 

BY E.G.CONSTABLE

 

On June 3, 1854, John Oldfield Constable, his wife, Anne, and their nine children, ranging in age from 26 to 7 years, bid farewell to old England forever as they boarded the ship Tantivy at Southampton.

 

On September 6, they walked ashore at Sydney Cove after a voyage of exactly three calendar months.

How did the ship make such good time?

There were no ports of call and the ‘Tantivy' was a sleek, ship-rigged vessel of 1040 tons, built in Canada, and only three years old.

The voyage took them straight down the Atlantic, round the Cape of Good Hope, and into the roaring forties for the grand roller-coaster ride across to Australia.

The Constable family, accustomed to the quiet of the fernlands and canals of East Anglia, found themselves plunged into the high adventure of gale force winds, mountainous seas and what, to them, must have been tremendous speeds at times, with the prospect of living in a wild and unknown land at the end of it all.

Fresh foods would have given out after the first few days and then the staple diet must have been salted meat and ships biscuits.

Nevertheless, they all arrived in good health according to the immigration sheets, and had no complaints to make about the voyage.

All that is, with the possible exception of the eldest daughter, Hannah, whose complaint section on the sheet was left vacant.

What could have upset my grand aunt Hannah?

Did one of the sailors wink at her?

Or did he fail to do so?

The surname, Constable, derives from the Latin Cones stabuli which means Count of the Stable, or some say, Keeper of Cattle.

The name started off with the appointment of a Sir William de La Haya as hereditary Chief Constable of Scotland by King David I round 1314.

In 1365, David II dubbed the son, Alexander, The Constable of Scotland.

The "of" and "the" were eventually dropped and Alex’s descendants were left with the surname, Constable, which has continued to the present day.

 

In the 1600’s, Hugh Constable migrated from the north Of England and farmed in the Stour River Valley.

The soil was good and he prospered.

A great grandson of his became the famous landscape painter, John Constable.

By this time, the family had spread out into the Norfolk and Suffolk regions and it is from this stock, specifically, round Wyndham (or Wymondham) a few miles from Norwich, that the Moruya Constables sprang.

What induced them to come to Australia?

In Australia, there was land to be had and the farmers of England were understandably land hungry as the place became more crowded.

In Australia, it was possible to become well-to-do if you were willing to work and to use your head.

There was the freedom of hunting, shooting and fishing within walking distance of most settlements without the fear of being hooted off by squires’ lackeys.

 

John Oldfield considered all these things, then gold was discovered.

 

GOLD!

Gold! Here was the deciding factor.

They would go to Australia.

They must come in for a share of the gold one way or another.

 

Even if they did not wield a pick and shovel or rock a "cradle", there would have to be a spin-off for everyone in a gold enriched society.

And so the Constable family arrived in Sydney and made their way south to Moruya.

 

FIRST NIGHT

 

So far I have found no record of how they spent that first night in Sydney.

A frightening prospect?

Or again of the euphoria they must have felt as they stepped ashore at Moruya and beheld the intriguing shapes of those mountains to the west where gold was being taken out by the ton.

I understand they brought from England an interesting number of items, among them a set of mill wheels (where are they now?) a blunderbuss and powder horn, a portrait of Queen Victoria (they were a patriotic crowd).

This latter provided the name for the "Queens Head Hotel" which one Constable opened in Moruya.

The portrait was hung in the bar.

The nine children of John Oldfield Constable all married and raised families, usually large.

 

There are now hundreds of his descendants living, or have lived, in Australia and New Zealand.

Early in 1989 I received an invitation to attend a Constable Reunion to be held at Camden.

It came from a Sister Mary Constable, known more familiarly to relatives as Doreen, who, I learned later, had received the BHP Award for the Pursuit of Excellence for her part in establishing a western type school in post war Japan.

I went along to this Reunion and shook hands with about 200 cousins, a wonderful if sometimes bone crushing experience.

 

ANOTHER

 

This success called for another Reunion, right In the middle of "Constable country" at Moruya.

Hazel Constable, supported by her husband, Jeff Constable MBE, of Dalmeny, undertook the daunting task of organisation.

With the family scattered as far afield as North Queensland, West Australia and New Zealand, the correspondence alone must have been a major undertaking.

Hazel sprang a surprise by having a consignment of tall wine glasses suitably inscribed and embellished with the constable crest in gold.

She may have some left for someone who appreciates a rare and beautiful set that will become a cherished heirloom.

John Oldfield Constable who established this Constable clan in Australia is buried in Moruya Cemetery.

Some day, I hope to see his headstone re-erected over a more resplendent tomb; something worthy of a pioneer who had a vision for his family and the will to do something about it.

 

HISTORY

 

I am in the process of writing a history of the Constable family in Australia.

I took on this self-imposed assignment rather lightheartedly about two years ago and can now see years of work ahead of me.

It will be written mainly for all descendants of John Oldfield Constable so they will have some idea who their forebears were, where they came from, what they did and why, their strengths, weaknesses and talents, and having read, might hopefully have a better idea how they themselves fit into the scheme of things and what might be expected of them.

A bit much to expect? We shall see.


Appendix 8 - Graves and Memorials

William Wilson

Goulburn Anglican Cemetery

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Callaghans

 

Daniel Henry Callaghan I - Rookwood Cemetery T 6580. Destroyed by vandals in 2007.

The inscription reads:

Left hand side:

DANIEL HENRY

CALLAGHAN

DIED 15TH SEPT. 1901

AGED 55 YEARS.

 

Right hand side:

ALSO HIS SONS

SGT. ALFRED CALLAGHAN,

3RD BATT. A.I.F.

KILLED IN ACTION

4TH OCT. 1917,

AGED 26 YEARS.

PTE WALTER J.E.

CALLAGHAN

59TH BATTALION A.I.F.

DIED OF WOUNDS

16TH SEPT. 1918,

AGED 23 YEARS.

THEY DIED FOR VICTORY.

 

 

Daniel Henry Callaghan II - Goulburn Anglican Cemetery

Also his eldest daughter Ethel Nellie, known as Nellie who died aged 14.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ethel Jeffrey Callaghan (nee Wilson) - Rookwood Cemetery EE G/365

The inscription reads:

In Loving Memory Of

ETHEL JEFFREY CALLAGHAN

DIED 6TH DECEMBER 1955

 

AT REST

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jean Ellen Callaghan (nee Blomfield)

Plaque in St James Church, Turramurra.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dawson Fletcher - Rookwood Cemetery 5E 7/654

The inscription reads:

In Loving Memory Of

DAWSON FLETCHER

DIED

28TH DECEMBER

1929

AGED 71 YEARS

 

 

 

 

 

John Oldfield Constable - Moruya Cemetery CE JOC1872

The inscription reads:

SACRED

TO

THE MEMORY OF

JOHN OLDFIELD CONSTABLE

NATIVE OF NORFOLK

ENGLAND

WHO DEPARTED THIS LIFE

ON THE 1ST OF APRIL 1872

IN THE 66 YEAR

OF HIS AGE

Weep not for me my wife and children dear

I am not dead but sleeping here.

ERECTED BY

JOHN, GEORGE AND JAMES

CONSTABLE

 

 

 

 

 

Charles Colefax

Harriet Colefax (nee Constable)

Ellen Ann Fletcher (nee Colefax) - Moruya Cemetery CE

The inscription reads:

In Loving Memory Of

CHARLES COLEFAX

DIED 11TH JULY 1920 AGED 74 YEARS

ALSO HIS BELOVED DAUGHTER

ELLEN ANN FLETCHER

DIED 17TH MARCH 1901 AGED 30 YEARS

Also His Beloved Wife HARRIET

(nee CONSTABLE)

DIED 4-8-1941, AGED 93 YEARS.

ABIDE WITH ME

 

William Dean

Elizabeth Dean (nee Hollingsworth) - St. John's Cemetery, Parramatta. Section II, Row E Grave 2.

The inscription reads:

SACRED

to the Memory of ELIZABETH DEAN

Wife of WILLIAM DEAN Western Road

Who departed this life 1st February 1839

Aged 59 Years

Also

JOHN DEAN

who departed this life

1st February 1840 Aged 6 Years

Also

GEORGE THOMAS BENJAMIN SMITH

Who departed this life 28th July 1841

Aged 4 Years and 6 Months

Also

REBECCA ELIZABETH SMITH

departed this life 3rd November 1841

Aged 6 Years and 3 Months

Also

WILLIAM DEAN

Who departed this

Life 7th November 1847 Aged 73 Years

 

The inscription has become illegible since 1988. Only the first two lines can now be read.

 

Burial Details:

Sandstone altar (lft 4ins x 3ft 5ins x 6ft 3ins) with a cambered lid on a

raised s/s plinth (8½ ins x 5ft 9ins x 8ft 9ins).

Burial Register:

Elizabeth Dean,19. Great Western Rd. 3-2-1839. Publican’s wife.

R.Forrester John Dean, 218. Western Road. 2-2-1840. 3-2-1840.

H.H.Bobart George Thomas Benjamin Smith,488. Clifton near

Richmond. 30-7-1841. 4yrs 5 months. H.H.Bobart

Rebecca Elizabeth Smith,540.Windsor.6-11-1841.7Yrs.H.H.Bobart

William Dean,1058. Western Rd. 10-11-1847. 71yrs. Farmer.

H.H.Bobart

 


References

1841 Census HO107/2382
1841 Census HO107/2382. BDM 09240.
1841 Census HO107/301/14
1841 Census HO107/301/14. Also 1851, 1861, 1871
1841 Scottish Census 644/1/9. 1881 Scottish Census Roll cssct1881_227 Line 14
1851 Scottish Census roll CSSCT1851_159 line 2.
1861 Census RG 9/3725
1861 England Census RG 9/1407, BDM 09759
Ancestry.com public tree dodd1
Ancestry.com public tree Jolyon72
BDM 08142
BDM 09240
BDM 09240, Goulburn newspaper articles
BDM 1934/3106
BDM 1994/1861
BDM 3490/1916
BDM Deaths 12559/1921
BDM Deaths 1934/3106
BDM Reg. 32543/1890. War Memorial and Red Cross records.
BDM Transcription 09240. 1881 England Census RG 11/4884. Family artifacts.
BDM Vol 155 NO 418, Moruya Pioneers Directory
BDM Vol 159 NO 293, BDM 1934/3106
Birth & Marriage certificates.
Birth Certificate DH Callaghan 1846.
Birth Certificate 1858. Headstone inscription
Geoffrey Kelly
Geoffrey Kelly, LDS C011652
Geoffrey Kelly, LDS C011652
Geoffrey Kelly, LDS C035711
Geoffrey Kelly, Moruya Historical Society
Geoffrey Kelly, Moruya Pioneers Directory
LDS Batch C021981
LDS Batch C072252
LDS Batch C072252 - Mother of Samuel Siggins b. 1640
LDS Batch C072981
LDS Batch C072981 - Mother of Joseph Siggins b. 1720
LDS Batch C072981 - Mother of Samuel Siggins b. 1666
LDS Batch C072981 - Mother of Samuel Siggins b. 1695
LDS Batch C073042
LDS Batch C073042 - Mother of Sarah Siggins b. 1743
LDS CD 112 Pin 285151 - Father of Elizabeth Hollingsworth b. 1779
LDS CD 112 Pin 285152
LDS CD 58 Pin 551902. William Dean Biography. Other publications.
LDS CD 58 Pin 552169
LDS CD 58 Pin 552213. Headstone inscription. William Dean biography.
LDS Film 1985342
LDS M035711 - wife of John Brown
LDS unsourced from member. William Riedy.
Marriage Certifcate (by banns)
Marriage Certificate
Moruya Historical Society
Moruya Pioneers Directory.
OPR 644/001 0440 0550
Pallot's Marriage Index
Pike Family History
Scottish Death certificate 644 03 0311
Scottish Death Certificate 644/02 0028
Stroud Reg. 3182.
William Dean Biography
William Riedy